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Listing CA Topics for Compilation

edited December 2017 in Current Affairs
Basic objective:
To crowd source imp current developments that are closely linked with our syllabus (based on recent trends)
#Prelims
#Mains - As a full fledged question or Useful innovative/unique points

What is expected from others
When u find some imp news article/ govt advt/ SC, HC judgements/ imp personalities speech etc and u believe it may influence a question in prelims or mains, post that as comments.
Dont forget to mention news article/ govt advt/ judgement/ imp personalities speech etc + different dimensions it can be asked in prelims or mains.
Others can suggest more aspects also.
Kindly dont post anything else.

Outcome:
These imp current developments can be compiled syllabus topics wise (In Evernote)
If everything goes right, finally we will get imp current developments linked with all syllabus topics

Background:
Most of the questions (both prelims, mains) are influenced by some current developments. Sometimes this link is prominent and known to everyone, sometimes it's less known or some other news papers that not followed or some HC judgement or some govt advt or some speech and we not realise its current significance.

*Some of the unconventional/difficult questions asked in last prelims also can be linked with current developments
(I don't want to mention the questions and possible links. It may reignite the old debate again)

Evernote link (later same link ll get updated with current topics)
http://www.evernote.com/l/Anw3Pi79wOFL-qJxgVSKZhTuca3nk9g1eFs/
Hunt alone

Comments

  • edited December 2017
    I want to add one example
    Recently PM mentioned media accountability, credibility, responsibility etc
    Vice-President made comments on media regulation, paid news etc
    These can be linked to many GS2 paper topics like
    *FRs Art 19 - Freedom of Press
    *Accountability, Transparency in governance (Leveson Committee gets imp)
    *Press Council of India (PCI), functions - under statutory body
    *Paid news - under electoral reforms
    *Govt advt guidelines, Madhava Menon Committee, SC judgement

    Media regulation is old issue, often in news, also all these details are already available in our books or notes or old CA compilations, even we had studied earlier. But most possibly we dont read that again or revise before exam, just because we dont remember these are in news recently. So when Art 19, PCI, Menon or Leveson Committee are combined and asked in mains GS2 paper it difficult to write a good ans.

    So this compilation can help to revise imp topics before exam.
    Hunt alone
  • Modern Indian History and Polity
    Reservation, seperate electorate,
    Gandhi vs Ambedkar (already asked in mains)
    http://www.thehindu.com/books/books-reviews/ambedkar-gandhi-and-patel-the-making-of-indias-electoral-system-review-voting-rights-for-all/article21213591.ece
    Hunt alone
  • Mount Aging volcano eruption, Bali:
    Ring of fire, Plate tectonics
    Magma, it's components - SO2 etc
    Effect on global warming
    Hunt alone
  • Cyclone Ockhi
    "Recurving of cyclone"
    Hunt alone
  • IoT, Cyber security threat
    Types of cyber security threats - DDoS etc
    National Cybersecurity Policy, poor implementation?
    Hunt alone
  • CYBER SECURITY

    FEATURES OF SECURE CYBER ECOSYSTEM

    * Confidentiality : The secrecy of data should be ensured.
    * Integrity: Data should not be modified or altered by unauthorized users
    * Availability: Data should be available only to authenticated persons
    * Privacy


    THREATS TO CYBER SECURITY SYSTEM

    * Hacking – illegal intrusion in to computer system and illegal gain of user access.
    * Cyber stalking – use of email, mms, etc. to stalk other person and continuous harassment and threat.
    * Denial of service: blocking user service, blocking the bandwidth,
    * Diffusion of malware such as virus, Trojans, spyware, hoax etc. in to the system.
    * Data security network sabotage and permanent damage to the system
    * Data diddling and data theft for stealing classified or unlawful or personal information.
    * Cyber warfare: includes cyber espionage, website defamation, data theft of defense secrets


    Examples of Recent Attacks

    * Legion attack
    * Wannacry ransomware
    * Stuxnet malware to damage Iran’s nuclear facility


    WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED?

    * Digital age & Internet of Things – So failure in one device can affect others
    * Era of internet governance (NeGP) and ITeS (eLearning, e-wallets)
    * Dependence of critical infrastructure on ICT
    * Increasing incidence of cyber-attacks
    * Threat to international peace from electronic terrorism and cyber war.


    CHALLENGES / PROBLEMS

    * Absence of any geographical barriers; Attribution is difficult as attacker is difficult to locate
    * Technology in cyberspace is rapidly evolving
    * Traditional security concepts like deterrence and retaliation are difficult to apply
    * Foolproof cybersecurity architecture difficult because of number of vulnerable points in overall ecosystem

    * Lack of coordination
    * among the civilian and military agencies; among multinational govt and non-govt agencies.
    * roles of various agencies overlap and there is no clear hierarchy between them.
    * no one central agency to look after the cyber space and coordinating between agencies.

    * Most of the norms of IT Act provide no stringent measures but are more preventive in nature.
    * Shortage of workforce (cyber experts) to effectively deal with threats.
    * Proposed agencies like National Cyber Coordination Centre are yet to become functional.
    * Attitudinal factor - The continued perception has been that cyber security is “optional”
    * Lack of digital literacy among the govt functionaries and citizens.


    MEASURES TAKEN TO STRENGTHEN CYBER SECURITY

    * Establishment of Cert-In to provide early security warning and effective incident response.
    * Establishing agencies like NATGRID, NTRO to provide technical intelligence to other agencies
    * National Cyber security policy 2013 and IT Act 2000 to ensure a secure and resilient cyberspace
    * Setting up infra at local level and capacity building like cyber cells and cyber forensic investigation labs
    * Armed forces have their own teams/cells for thwarting cyber attacks.
    * Cyber Swachhta Kendra – Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre
    * India has teamed up with countries for mutual sharing of information and best- practices


    SOLUTIONS

    * A consolidated law/policy for dealing with cyber security is very necessary.
    * Establishment of a permanent central agency responsible for cyber security.
    * Training the govt staff to deal with cyber threats; educate the citizens
    * Work with the private sector to establish a foolproof defence system.
    * National Cyber Registry “as a repository of IT professionals” should be implemented.

    * Efforts should also be made at the international level
    * consider acceding to Budapest convention.
    * push for an international court to prosecute transnational cyber crimes,

    * Air gapping to isolate the critical infrastructures
    * Sensitize people and instts to make them report such attacks promptly, so that quick action can be taken
    * Need to develop the offensive capabilities as well rather than being merely defensive.


    NOTE : The Budapest Convention is the only multilateral treaty on cyber security that addresses Internet and computer crime by harmonizing national laws, improving legal authorities for investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations. Developing countries including India have not signed it stating that the developed countries lead by the US drafted it without consulting them.


    NATIONAL CYBER SECURITY POLICY, 2013

    PROVISIONS

    * Set up different bodies to tackle various levels of threats, along with a national nodal agency, to coordinate all matters related to cyber security.

    * Create a National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC)
    * Create a workforce of around 500,000 trained in cyber security.
    * Provide fiscal benefits to businesses to adopt best security practices.
    * Set up testing labs to regularly check the safety of equipment being used in the country.

    * Create a cyber ecosystem in the country, developing effective PPP and collaborative engagements through technical and operational cooperation.

    * Building indigenous security technologies through research.


    CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    * Mandatory security measures through regulations may create problems for those sectors (businesses) that are not mature in security implementations.

    * The policy has proved to be a paper work only with no actual implementation till date.

    * Although it seeks to protect the critical infra. but it doesn’t specify what (sectors/orgs) would come under it

    * Has failed to protect civil liberties of Indians including privacy rights as various instances of cyber fraud can be seen e. g. recent debit card transaction issue. Although one of the objectives of NCSP is to safeguard the privacy of citizen’s data, no specific strategy or activity to achieve this objective has been mentioned in the policy.

    * The offensive and cyber security capabilities of India are still missing.

    * International cooperation and advocacy are not given due prominence. The policy does not seem to fully establish the leadership role that India should play in the international arena.


    Ab cyber security pe koi bhi mains mein question aayega, isme se hi answer banega.
    Baar baar cyber security ke upar news or articles, politicians ki speeches padhne ka koi fayda nahi hai. Agar kuch addon hota hai toh, toh isi mein addon hoga. Waise zyaada kuch add karna nahi padega
    The day we decided that the worth of an individual was determined by their performance in an examination, that was the day Education failed us.
  • CYBER SECURITY

    FEATURES OF SECURE CYBER ECOSYSTEM

    * Confidentiality : The secrecy of data should be ensured.
    * Integrity: Data should not be modified or altered by unauthorized users
    * Availability: Data should be available only to authenticated persons
    * Privacy


    THREATS TO CYBER SECURITY SYSTEM

    * Hacking – illegal intrusion in to computer system and illegal gain of user access.
    * Cyber stalking – use of email, mms, etc. to stalk other person and continuous harassment and threat.
    * Denial of service: blocking user service, blocking the bandwidth,
    * Diffusion of malware such as virus, Trojans, spyware, hoax etc. in to the system.
    * Data security network sabotage and permanent damage to the system
    * Data diddling and data theft for stealing classified or unlawful or personal information.
    * Cyber warfare: includes cyber espionage, website defamation, data theft of defense secrets


    Examples of Recent Attacks

    * Legion attack
    * Wannacry ransomware
    * Stuxnet malware to damage Iran’s nuclear facility


    WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED?

    * Digital age & Internet of Things – So failure in one device can affect others
    * Era of internet governance (NeGP) and ITeS (eLearning, e-wallets)
    * Dependence of critical infrastructure on ICT
    * Increasing incidence of cyber-attacks
    * Threat to international peace from electronic terrorism and cyber war.


    CHALLENGES / PROBLEMS

    * Absence of any geographical barriers; Attribution is difficult as attacker is difficult to locate
    * Technology in cyberspace is rapidly evolving
    * Traditional security concepts like deterrence and retaliation are difficult to apply
    * Foolproof cybersecurity architecture difficult because of number of vulnerable points in overall ecosystem

    * Lack of coordination
    * among the civilian and military agencies; among multinational govt and non-govt agencies.
    * roles of various agencies overlap and there is no clear hierarchy between them.
    * no one central agency to look after the cyber space and coordinating between agencies.

    * Most of the norms of IT Act provide no stringent measures but are more preventive in nature.
    * Shortage of workforce (cyber experts) to effectively deal with threats.
    * Proposed agencies like National Cyber Coordination Centre are yet to become functional.
    * Attitudinal factor - The continued perception has been that cyber security is “optional”
    * Lack of digital literacy among the govt functionaries and citizens.


    MEASURES TAKEN TO STRENGTHEN CYBER SECURITY

    * Establishment of Cert-In to provide early security warning and effective incident response.
    * Establishing agencies like NATGRID, NTRO to provide technical intelligence to other agencies
    * National Cyber security policy 2013 and IT Act 2000 to ensure a secure and resilient cyberspace
    * Setting up infra at local level and capacity building like cyber cells and cyber forensic investigation labs
    * Armed forces have their own teams/cells for thwarting cyber attacks.
    * Cyber Swachhta Kendra – Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre
    * India has teamed up with countries for mutual sharing of information and best- practices


    SOLUTIONS

    * A consolidated law/policy for dealing with cyber security is very necessary.
    * Establishment of a permanent central agency responsible for cyber security.
    * Training the govt staff to deal with cyber threats; educate the citizens
    * Work with the private sector to establish a foolproof defence system.
    * National Cyber Registry “as a repository of IT professionals” should be implemented.

    * Efforts should also be made at the international level
    * consider acceding to Budapest convention.
    * push for an international court to prosecute transnational cyber crimes,

    * Air gapping to isolate the critical infrastructures
    * Sensitize people and instts to make them report such attacks promptly, so that quick action can be taken
    * Need to develop the offensive capabilities as well rather than being merely defensive.


    NOTE : The Budapest Convention is the only multilateral treaty on cyber security that addresses Internet and computer crime by harmonizing national laws, improving legal authorities for investigative techniques, and increasing cooperation among nations. Developing countries including India have not signed it stating that the developed countries lead by the US drafted it without consulting them.


    NATIONAL CYBER SECURITY POLICY, 2013

    PROVISIONS

    * Set up different bodies to tackle various levels of threats, along with a national nodal agency, to coordinate all matters related to cyber security.

    * Create a National Critical Information Infrastructure Protection Centre (NCIIPC)
    * Create a workforce of around 500,000 trained in cyber security.
    * Provide fiscal benefits to businesses to adopt best security practices.
    * Set up testing labs to regularly check the safety of equipment being used in the country.

    * Create a cyber ecosystem in the country, developing effective PPP and collaborative engagements through technical and operational cooperation.

    * Building indigenous security technologies through research.


    CRITICAL ANALYSIS

    * Mandatory security measures through regulations may create problems for those sectors (businesses) that are not mature in security implementations.

    * The policy has proved to be a paper work only with no actual implementation till date.

    * Although it seeks to protect the critical infra. but it doesn’t specify what (sectors/orgs) would come under it

    * Has failed to protect civil liberties of Indians including privacy rights as various instances of cyber fraud can be seen e. g. recent debit card transaction issue. Although one of the objectives of NCSP is to safeguard the privacy of citizen’s data, no specific strategy or activity to achieve this objective has been mentioned in the policy.

    * The offensive and cyber security capabilities of India are still missing.

    * International cooperation and advocacy are not given due prominence. The policy does not seem to fully establish the leadership role that India should play in the international arena.


    Ab cyber security pe koi bhi mains mein question aayega, isme se hi answer banega.
    Baar baar cyber security ke upar news or articles, politicians ki speeches padhne ka koi fayda nahi hai. Agar kuch addon hota hai toh, toh isi mein addon hoga. Waise zyaada kuch add karna nahi padega

    awesome..thanks bhai..aur bhi hai toh bata do sirji...
    You wouldn't like me when i'm angry Because I always back up my rage with facts and documented sources. |Philosophy|
  • edited December 2017
    @fieryfiesta super!
    I am preparing same kind of notes with Mains365 material and planned to update that with every month vision compilation or from news paper.

    Crimes against women:
    https://www.evernote.com/shard/s636/sh/24768dbd-f3ab-4c93-8b8b-e2b640f040fa/dc3e483e1e58f87289bfcd1fd4ff2f38

    PS: anyone doing same or interested to share notes can join.
    Hunt alone
  • One more advantage of listing out imp current topics,
    Most of the current issues are repeating ones, if u want just run "advanced search" in pdf for folder containing last 3 years vision IAS monthly magazines. U ll find most of the current topics eg. Rohingya issue is there in Feb, 2016 itself.
    Ofcourse we cannot refer entire 3 years monthly magazines, only get details for the imp topics in recent news. I think it's workable.
    Hunt alone
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