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Admissions for the Mains Guidance Program 2019 are open, commencing from October 28, 2018. Optional of taking up MGP or MGP+ , which includes Essay. Visit http://academy.forumias.com to know more.

Fodder for Enrichment in Mains

Hello Forumites.

Lets gather here and share various theories from different optional subjects so that we can collectively enrich our knowledge base which will definitely help in Essay and GS Papers.

I start the process with an example:

The ‘male backlash’ theory suggests that a woman’s independence signifies a challenge to a culturally prescribed norm and hence results in physical aggression.

Comments

  • good initiative

    i would like to remind about Lewis Point - was in today's hindu


    lewis point is that point in any economy where the supply of surplus labour from rural areas stops.
    1. due to depletion of labour in rural areas the wages shoot up. . hence pull and push factors leading to migration to urban areas are very less infact absent

    2.. happens in almost every economy transitioning from agri. to industrial

    Mood bohot kharab hai kya kare
    Prelims -4 Mains-4* Interview - 0*

    Kaun kehta hai aasmaan me chhed nahi hota ?
    ek patthar to tabiyat se uchal ke dekho dost
  • Rice-bowl theory

    The poor in an underdeveloped country are more interested in a bowl of rice than in democracy, and that, in
    any case, democracy is useless to them if it could not guarantee them adequate food, clothing and shelter.
  • Umwelt/ Ethology
    In German, Umwelt means “surroundings” and refers to how an organism mentally frames its world. The biologist, Jakob von Uexküll, coined the concept to argue that extrapolating human-centric models of the brain to understand animal cognition was a flawed approach. The eyeless tick, for example, climbs onto a grass stem and sensing butyric acid on the skin of a mammal, lunges, has its fill of blood, lays its eggs and dies. Its life-goal and approach to achieving it constitute the tick’s umwelt. Viewed this way, marking dogs, dolphins and chimpanzees as ‘smart’ and others as ‘dumb as dodos’ would not only be false but meaningless.
  • Cosmo said:

    Umwelt/ Ethology
    In German, Umwelt means “surroundings” and refers to how an organism mentally frames its world. The biologist, Jakob von Uexküll, coined the concept to argue that extrapolating human-centric models of the brain to understand animal cognition was a flawed approach. The eyeless tick, for example, climbs onto a grass stem and sensing butyric acid on the skin of a mammal, lunges, has its fill of blood, lays its eggs and dies. Its life-goal and approach to achieving it constitute the tick’s umwelt. Viewed this way, marking dogs, dolphins and chimpanzees as ‘smart’ and others as ‘dumb as dodos’ would not only be false but meaningless.

    so ja bhai cosmo :D
  • Gaia hypothesis

    Propounded by British scientist James Lovelock in the 1970s, the Gaia hypothesis conceives of the earth as a self-regulating system, much like a single organism. The earth’s living organisms and its physical components (air, water, soil), according to this hypothesis, form a complex system that interacts with each other in such as way as to maintain the conditions essential for the sustenance of life on the planet. This equilibrium, Lovelock argues, is being skewed by heightened human intervention that threatens not just the planet’s biodiversity but the future sustenance of human beings themselves.
  • Requesting @ForumIAS to compile all the fodder material and present as compilation
    once again HUSTLE
  • Dutch disease


    is the negative impact on an economy of anything that gives rise to a sharp inflow of foreign currency, such as the discovery of large oil reserves. The currency inflows lead to currency appreciation, making the country's other products less price competitive on the export market.
    An Ounce of Action Is Worth a Ton of Theory
  • Good Initiative.

    Sab Timing Ka Khel Hai.

  • The Impossible trinity (also known as the Trilemma, or Unholy Trinity) is a concept in international economics which states that it is impossible to have all three of the following at the same time: a fixed foreign exchange rate. free capital movement (absence of capital controls) an independent monetary policy.
  • It would be really helpful if aspirants belonging to different optionals could share some theories from their curriculum.
  • Mackinder’s Heartland Theory

    According to this theory, the continental power was represented by the world island which consisted of Eurasia and Africa (comprising seven- eighth of total world population and two-third of the total land area of the world). Mackinder called it the Heartland. This Heartland was perceived as the greatest natural fortress on earth surrounded on all sides by geographical barriers.

    It had rugged mountains of Lena Land in the north-east; in the east it had the Altai, Tienshan mountains across which lie the wastelands of Mongolia and Sinkiang; in the south it had Hindukush ranges and the plateau of Afghanistan and Iran; in the south-west, between the Caspian Sea and the Black Sea lie the Caucasus and the plateau of Armenia; in the west, the Heartland was surrounded by the Carpathian mountains; in the north-west were the Baltic Sea and the wastes of Lappland; in the north lies the Arctic Ocean. Thus only between the Carpathians and the Black Sea is there a lowland route into the Heartland

    The Heartland is inaccessible from sea as all the rivers either drain inland (e.g. Volga, Oxus, Jaxartes) or into the icy sea (e.g. Obi, Yenisei, Lena which drain into the Arctic Sea).

    He predicted:

    “Whoever rules East Europe, will rule Heartland,

    Whoever rules the Heartland, will rule the World Island.”

    Whoever rules the World Island, will rule the world.”
    clip_image002_thumb12.jpg
    590 x 463 - 61K
  • ^it seems yours is geography o:)
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