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Anthropology Question/Answer discussions (Target based study)

dogdog
edited April 2016 in Anthropology
Dear anthropology friends, I'm new to this subject and want to complete it in next 1 month. (whole April) After that I'll study only for Prelims and will continue Anthro only after Prelims exam. But, next time I want to do revision instead of doing first reading of any topic.
Lets collaborate together and complete the syllabus. I'll provide daily targets to complete and questions to solve. I request all seniors and experienced friends to please provide feedback on the answers that will be posted on this thread. It will help everyone immensely and also will be useful for other aspirants who could read this thread later.

Note - In order to gain maximum from this initiative, please first read the topic, understand it and then write the answer in your notebook or type here without cheating.

Today's target (1st April) is to solve following 15 questions from topic 8 of Paper - 1 (Research methods in anthropology)


Question 1 - Discuss the importance of field work in anthropology and describe various tools of data collection.
Question 2 - Genealogical Method
Question 3 - Discuss the relevance of Case Study method of data collection
Question 4 - Relative dating methods
Question 5 - What are the tools of data collection?
Question 6 - Discuss the advantages and limitations of participant observations as a technique of data collection
Question 7 - What do you understand by the following terms? (i) Systematic sampling (ii) Stratified sampling (iii) Multistage sampling
Question 8 - Schedule and 'Questionnaire' in research methodology
Question 9 - Critically examine the contribution of Positivist and Non-Positivist approaches in Social Science Research.
Question 10 - Schedule and Questionnaire
Question 11 - Participatory Rapid Assessment (PRA)
Question 12 - Discuss the contributions of field work in the development of anthropological concepts and theories.
Question 13 - Trace the genesis and development of fieldwork in anthropological research. Assess its importance in the development of Anthropology.
Question 14 - Examine the importance of observation as a field work technique in Anthropology. Differentiate between participant and non-participant observation.
Question 15 - What are questionnaires and schedule techniques of field study? Assess their relative usefulness in anthropological studies.

Thank you. Lets start solving these questions :neutral:
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Comments

  • Question 1 - Discuss the importance of field work in anthropology and describe various tools of data collection.

    Field work tradition was started by Malinowski, during his visit to Trobriand islands and is immensely important for furthering the anthropological studies. Importance of field work in anthropology is due to -
    (a) Field work ensures intensive research on subject matter, and produces variable and intensive data.
    (b) Anthropologists are better able to explain and note various vital cultural phenomena's which are hidden from external observation.
    (c) Field work results in enrichment of knowledge of various languages, artworks, customs, values and traditions in its original form.
    (d) Primitive societies/bands/tribes are suspicious of outsiders, while field work especially participant observation lets them gain trust on anthropologist.

    Various tools of data collection used in field work are -
    (a) Questionnaire - A definite set of questions to be filled by the subjects.
    (b) Schedule - A set of questions/instructions to be filled up by the questioner
    (c) Case study -
    (d) Interview - Asking questions directly in informal way. Learning the tribal language is compulsory for efficient interview.
    (e) Genealogical method
    (f) Life histories, Oral history
    (g) Observation

    (Other points after cheating -
    (a) Members of community are unaware of researcher's purpose, thus their behaviour is least affected, and thus researcher can record their natural behaviour in group.
    (b) Researcher can record context which gives meaning to expressions of opinion. He can also check the truth of statements made by the members of the group.
    (c) Rare occurrences like sexual behaviour, family crisis and underworld activities are not available for direct observation by an outsider.
  • Question 2 - Genealogical Method

    Genealogical method is use to trace the lineage or descent of a particular group. The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes.

    Pedigree Chart is used to show genealogy. In order to get the relationships and various kinship terms, the 'ego' is interviewed in objective way, by asking name of the person's who 'bore' or 'begot' him/her. The general terms of father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt have different meanings in different cultures and couldn't be used directly.

    Genealogy helps in census and helps in serving various functions such as marriage restrictions, property inheritance rules, claims to chiefship or other heredity roles, performance of magic/rituals etc.

    Some problems related to Genealogical method are repetitive names, adoption of children in a particular society, cultural taboo to not take names of dead people, suspicious population which thinks that genealogical studies could be used for harmful things such as taxation etc.

    Genealogy is very important technique in Anthropological studies, and systematic and effective techniques are to be used by anthropologist to arrive at right information useful for his research.

    Please review.
  • dogdog
    edited April 2016
    Question 3 - Discuss the relevance of Case Study method of data collection

    Case study method of data collection has been of immense help to social scientists and anthropologists in holistic enquiry of a particular social unit, individual, social structure or institution.

    The relevance of Caste study method of data collection is in following ways -
    (a) Case study provides detailed data, and subjective analysis of case in hand. All aspects are given importance and thorough examination is done to prepare a holistic natural history of that particular case.
    (b) Case study provides data in unknown territories which can be used for further research and thus finding solutions to problems unknown till date.
    (c) Case study method provides base for other data collection methods such as Questionnaire and Schedule since these methods require holistic understanding of case in hand.
    (d) Case study preparation helps the anthropologist in expanding his analytical ability and data collection skills.
    (e) Case study also helps in preparation of historical facts and natural past.
    (f) Case study is the method used to solve problems of applied anthropology.

    However, there are some drawbacks of case study method -
    (a) The case study process is highly subjective, with no scientific way to collect data.
    (b) No comparison could be done, between different cases due to their subjective nature.
    (c) It is highly expensive and time taking process.

    Still, case study method is highly relevant to solve the modern mysteries of varied problems faced by social anthropologists in their quest for finding solutions therein.

    Other points after cheating -
    (a) enables to understand fully the behaviour pattern of the concerned unit.
    (b) Researcher obtains the real and enlightened record of personal experiences, which reveal man's inner strivings, tensions and motivations that drive him to action along with the forces that direct him to adopt a certain pattern of behaviour.
    (c) Helps in formulating relevant hypothesis, along with data to test it.
    (d) Facilitates intensive study of social units.
    (e) Enables the study of social change and dynamics of social change.

    Limitations -
    (a) False generalizations
    (b) Assumptions non-realistic
    (c) Correct sampling for case study not always possible in a large society.
  • Question 4 - Relative dating methods

    Relative dating methods are used in determining the relative sequence of past events. These methods tell the relative ages and sequence of events, but do not tell the absolute age. Absolute dating methods such as radiometric dating methods are used for such purposes.

    In Relative dating one of the popular principal used is "Law of Superimposition" which states that older layers will be deeper in the site than more recent layers.

    Some of relative dating methods as used in Archaeology and Palaeontology are -
    (a) Seriation (archaeology) - In this method artefacts from numerous sites of the same culture are placed in chronological order. It is used to date stone tools, pottery fragments, and other artefacts.

    (b) Biostratigraphy Assigning relative ages of rock strata by using the fossils assemblages contained within them. Aim is to correlate the relative ages of different sections of sediments.

    Relative dating methods are used where absolute dating methods can't be used or are not feasible. But, absolute dating methods do help in corroborating and providing proof to the findings of relative dating methods thus being complementary to each other.
  • Question 5 - What are the tools of data collection?


    Various tools of data collection are -
    (a) Observation
    (b) Interviews
    (c) Questionnaires
    (d) Schedules
    (e) Participant observation
    (f) Life history
    (g) Case study
  • Question 6 - Discuss the advantages and limitations of participant observations as a technique of data collection


    Advantage of participant observation as a technique of data collection are as follows -
    (a) More comprehensive knowledge of the culture.
    (b) Data is collected in natural environment as anthropologist lives among the people whom he observes.
    (c) Some rare events such as sexual encounters, marriages, underworld customs, etc. could be documented which may not be readily available to outsiders.
    (d) Anthropologist is able to explain the context in which the data is gathered, thus giving his notes meaning.
    (e) Knowing the culture and language of people being observed, anthropologist can ascertain the truth of data collected.

    However participant observations has several limitations such as -
    (a) Anthropologist may not be welcome as a member of group
    (b) He may be looked upon with suspicion
    (c) Anthropologist may himself alter the culture of the people whom he's studying.
    (d) Elites of particular field study, are more familiar with researcher, and in turn may monopolise him/her.
    (e) Anthropologist may be asked to play some role, thus binding himself to certain tasks and people.
    (f) Complex situation arises when two conflicting groups live together in same society and researcher has to gather data from both parties.
    (g) Personal biases, anger, love, frustration, cultural difference may ruin the whole objective of participant observation.

    Still, participant observation is a dominant and extremely important method of field study to gain insights on life of primitive, simple as well as complex societies.


  • Question 7 - What do you understand by the following terms? (i) Systematic sampling (ii) Stratified sampling (iii) Multistage sampling



    Sampling refers to the process of selection of a representative population from whole population according to some fixed plan/rule.

    (i) Systematic Sampling - It is an statistical method in which selection of elements is done from an ordered sampling frame. Sampling starts by selecting any element at random, and then every other element is selected after a fixed interval and time frame.
    Systematic sampling should be applied only in homogeneous populations.

    (ii) Stratified sampling - In this sampling method, researcher divides the population into homogeneous subgroups before sampling. These subgroups are mutually exclusive. Also, they should be exhaustive, in that no population element should be left out. Later, simple random sampling or systematic sampling is applied to each strata.
    It is cost effective and reduces sampling errors. But, it can't be used when populations can't be partitioned into different subgroups.

    (iii) Multi-stage Sampling - Here the population is divided into clusters or groups and then samples are chosen from those clusters. Even clusters may be subdivided and random sampling done from them in multi-stage sampling.

    Ex - Choosing few states for housing survey, then choosing few districts from those states, then few blocks from those districts and then few houses from each block chosen. This way it becomes faster and easier to conduct sampling.
  • Question 8 - Schedule and 'Questionnaire' in research methodology
    Question 10 - Schedule and Questionnaire
    Question 15 - What are questionnaires and schedule techniques of field study? Assess their relative usefulness in anthropological studies.





    Schedule and Questionnaire are both research methods for data collection in which systematic questions are made and asked from the population to be surveyed. But they both have some fundamental differences -

    (a) Questionnaire is to be filled by respondents themselves without any assistance. It is mailed to them, and they have to understand and fill it, while Schedule is filled by enumerator who helps respondents in understanding the questions and gets their responses.

    (b) Questions could be both close ended and open ended in both methods.

    (c) Questionnaire is useful for surveying large populations in time effective way with less cost, while Schedule requires more time, and cost of salary of enumerators and training them.

    (d) Methodology of both methods is to go from simple to complex, having clear questions, eliminating confusion in questions, having a pilot-survey to develop systematic questions/form, not asking too much emotional questions/personal questions, which respondents may not answer.

    (e) Questionnaire may not be filled completely, and many forms may be returned back, while schedule gives more responses as it is guided by enumerator. Thus, questionnaire may contain biased conclusions.

    (f) Personal contact is not possible in questionnaire and thus difficult to know who answered. Also, questionnaire generally suits literate and educated population, while vice versa for schedule.

    (g) The success of questionnaire method lies on quality of questions itself, while success of schedule lies on honesty and competence of enumerators. Enumerators can also indulge in observation method, which is not possible in questionnaire.

    Both, these methods are useful in anthropological methods in different context. Like for accurate data, from relatively backward population, schedule works better, while questionnaire works better when data is to be collected from large educated population.
  • In the same boat

    Will pitch in soon..

    Are you choosing a random topic from the syllabus for each day?
    *Knowledge is knowing that a tomato is a fruit, wisdom is not putting it in a fruit salad.*
  • Question 9 - Critically examine the contribution of Positivist and Non-Positivist approaches in Social Science Research.



    Positivist approach is related to empirical observation, scientific validation of facts and figures. Its mainly asks 'How much' or 'How many' as in quantitative terms, and tries to classify all data that could be directly observed and verified into fixed categories. This strategy was highly beneficial for approaches such as 'new ethnography' where data was gathered and classified into different categories, especially by field studies, and emic approach to linguistics and semantics.

    Non-positivist approach is different in the sense that it focuses not on exclusive facts, but on idiosyncratic behaviour of human beings. According to it, every individual is unique having its own thought process, and cultural values and beliefs. So, social actions can't be generalized and idealized. Even the researcher has his own biases, cultural context and research environment such as funding, methodology and problem in hand, which impacts the final results of research.
    Non-positivist approach has been used in 'Historical particularism' and 'cultural relativism' according to which every culture is different and needs to be studied in detail and individuals act according to their own cultural beliefs and morals.

    Both approaches have their own relevance in different situations and a mixed approach is needed to gather correct data for solving the contemporary problems of mankind.

    In the same boat

    Will pitch in soon..

    Are you choosing a random topic from the syllabus for each day?

    No, not random. Currently doing topic - 8 of paper 1. After this topic 9 Genetics will start. I've already done most of portions of Topic 1 to 7 in my notebook, so will revise it once remaining topics are done. :)


    Syllabus of topic 8

    8. Research methods in anthropology: (a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology (b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology (c) Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods. (d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.
  • Question 11 - Participatory Rapid Assessment (PRA)


    Participatory Rapid Assessment (PRA) is a technique of data collection and problem solving in which the local rural poor population is made participant, and is encouraged to determine, plan and assess their own problems themselves.

    This method is different from earlier used model of Rapid Rural Assessment, in which quick time bound field-studies were done by subject experts to know about the problems of rural areas.

    PRA recognizes the ability of poor to better understand and solve their problems, themselves. In this various techniques are used such as semi-interviews, discussions, pictorial representations, annual calender, ranking methods, Venn diagrams etc.

    The PRA methodology works on the principle of giving space to individuals, listening to them patiently and not interrupting or lecturing.

    Some drawbacks of PRA are false generalizations, inclusion of myths and superstitions, investigator bias, not giving enough time, not asking right questions, lack of structured approach such as questionnaire etc.

    But, PRA if implemented properly could change the face of rural development and applied anthropology.


    Question 12 - Discuss the contributions of field work in the development of anthropological concepts and theories.
    Question 13 - Trace the genesis and development of fieldwork in anthropological research. Assess its importance in the development of Anthropology.
    Question 14 - Examine the importance of observation as a field work technique in Anthropology. Differentiate between participant and non-participant observation.


    Some parts of these questions are already discussed above.
    Contribution of field work to the development of anthropological concepts and theories -
    (a) Malinowski and his field work in the Trobriand Island.
    (b) Fraz Boas and his concept of 'historical particularism' and his visit to British Columbia
    (c) R.C. Brown - Among andaman islanders (learnt their language and collected data though participant observation)

    Answer is incomplete. Please add more points, from theoretical part.
  • Next Set of questions from Topic 8 (2nd April target) - 5 questions

    Syllabus -
    8. Research methods in anthropology: (a) Fieldwork tradition in anthropology (b) Distinction between technique, method and methodology (c) Tools of data collection: observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, Case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods. (d) Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

    Question 16 - Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. How these differ from those of other social sciences?Discuss
    Question 17 - Method and Methodology
    Question 18 - Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies.
    Question 19 - How does fieldworker strike a balance between the theoretical requirements and real field situations?Describe with suitable examples.
    Question 20 - Explain the significant role of an informant in anthropological fieldwork.
  • Questions for 3rd April - (Topic 9) Genetics

    Syllabus -
    9.1 Human Genetics : Methods and Application: Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

    Question 9.01 - Twin method in human genetics
    Question 9.02 - Non-communicable diseases
    Question 9.03 - Genetics of HLA and organ transplantation
    Question 9.04 - Anthropological relevance of population genetics
    Question 9.05 - Thrifty genotype
    Question 9.06 - Pedigree Analysis
    Question 9.07 - Genome Study
    Question 9.08 - Discuss the areas in which the knowledge of human genetics can be applied
    Question 9.09 - Discuss the roles of twins in nature-nurture problems and illustrate your answer with suitable examples
    Question 9.10 - Define twins. Describe the methods of diagnosis of twins. In what ways are twins useful in the study of human genetics?
  • dogdog
    edited April 2016
    Question 16 - Discuss the nature and logic of anthropological field work methods. How these differ from those of other social sciences?Discuss

    Nature of anthropological field work methods are -
    (a) There should be no bias in the mind of the researcher. He has to leave behind his own cultural biases for neutral observation
    (b) Prolonged living with the native population on whom studies are going on.
    (c) Should not down each and every observation, even if its not relevant for research under consideration. This will result in creation of new avenues.
    (d) Anthropologist should make himself part and parcel of native society, by learning their language, customs and traditions.

    Logic of anthropological field work methods is -
    (a) Proper understanding of primitive or tribal cultures can't be gained from outside fence.
    (b) How complex societies develop from simple societies can be known via. fieldwork especially learning about the tribal cultures in detail
    (c) Generalisations about human cultural evolution can be made only after learning about small, simple societies and general laws governing them.

    Anthropological field work differs from other social sciences due to -
    (a) Its holistic approach - It includes and studies all parts of human life including society, economy, history, polity and religion.
    (b) Comparative method - Anthropologists compare and contrast different societies to bring about generalizations
    (c) Emphasis on fieldwork - Participant observation is used in extreme form in anthropological studies.
    (d) Applied nature - Many of findings of anthropology are used to solve the problems that humanity is facing in day to day life.
    Thus, Anthropological field work (emic) is very different from other social sciences such as sociology, economics or political science, which focus on only single aspect and depend on external methods such as survey or questionnaire (etic)
  • Question 17 - Method and Methodology
    Question 18 - Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies.

    Method is the root for 'methodology', thus ought to be defined first.

    Method means the way in which we do things. In research methods, the tools, processes and ways by which the data is collected in known as methods.

    When we add 'ology' which means 'branch of knowledge' or 'discipline of study' then 'methodology' means the study of research methods. In it various methods are researched, their functioning explained, and in what scenario they should be used is determined.

    Ex - Population census uses Schedule method, where enumerators go to each house to gather data.
    Taxation filing uses forms, Questionnaire are used in surveys, personal interview is used in job interviews.

    So, which method to be used in anthropology depends on nature of the problem.

    Technique refers to the way in which the research methods are implemented. For ex - personal interview could be recorded by using tape recorder, questionnaire could be sent by email or fax or by post.
  • Question 19 - How does fieldworker strike a balance between the theoretical requirements and real field situations?Describe with suitable examples.

    Fieldworker has to strike a balance between theoretical requirements and real field situations. This is beneficial not only for his research, but also for the development of the subject.

    Example - Theoretical requirements specify the mandate of researcher and the areas in which he/she has to focus, but real field situations could be different and he may learn about many new areas, discover new artefacts or possible cultural deviations.
    So, an anthropologist must note down and record all such deviations from standard work, which could pave way for further research. His own field may completely change due to such deviations.

    Second situation is theoretical requirement of complete neutrality and leaving all biases aside. But, during fieldwork the researcher has to face several conflicting situations, has to suffer hunger, lack of shelter, animosity, anger, cultural deviations from his own morality and is still expected to remain friendly and humble with natives. So, striking a balance is important.

    Third situation is theoretically he has to record all knowledge and traditions, but sometimes, many things are totally new in nature and anthropologists find it problematic to mention it during real field situations. Then, they have to devise or innovate ways, to explain or record things, which can't be explained or recorded by the traditional theories/ways.

  • Question 20 - Explain the significant role of an informant in anthropological fieldwork.

    Informant as the name suggests is someone who provides 'information' or 'data' during anthropological studies. It could be the chief of tribal population under study, language translator, head of a family, common women folk, children, hunters, shamans or any functionary who could talk about that specific culture and tell something.

    Without informant anthropologists can't prepare their notes, pedigree charts, may not be able to understand the local customs and traditions, may not know the significance of different symbols, religion, sacred and profane objects in their culture etc.

    The word 'informant' is itself being debated upon, where the anthropologists consider them as objects under study, whereas there is a two way relationship, in which the 'informant' gets involved with the researcher and can become his friend, drink buddy, family, enemy, could read his books, or write about him.

    Right 'information' could be gathered from correct 'informant'. Old people in the society can better tell about hereditary problems and name of common ancestors. Shaman or priest of a society could better tell about religious beliefs and virtues. Chief of the tribe could better tell about the political organisation and methods used in defence/offence by the tribe.

    Thus, choosing right informant is critical for gathering right information and thus furthering the anthropological research.
  • Hi all,
    I am looking for a discussion partner ( for anthro and GS) for 2016 pre and mains..preferably who has already got interview call after writing mains with Anthro and living in old rajender nagar..asap..
    my profile - written mains with Anthro thrice and got interview call this time
    only serious candidates who want to start discussion this week, plz message me
    thanks
  • Question 9.01 - Twin method in human genetics
    Question 9.09 - Discuss the roles of twins in nature-nurture problems and illustrate your answer with suitable examples
    Question 9.10 - Define twins. Describe the methods of diagnosis of twins. In what ways are twins useful in the study of human genetics?


    Twin method is very important in Human genetics to understand the role of 'genes' and 'environment' in development of phenotype of individuals.

    Twins are babies born together at same time, from same mother. Twins are of two types.

    Monozygotic (MZ) - These twins are genetically identical, since they are born when a single zygote (fusion of sperm and egg) gets divided identically into two parts, thus giving rise to two identical twins. Thus, both sex and genes are same in such twins.

    Dizygotic (DZ) - These twins are similar to siblings, because two different sperms and eggs fuse together to formulate 2 separate zygotes. These are called fraternal twins and do not share same genes, and could be of opposite sex.

    Diagnosis of twins is done by following ways -

    (a) Placental information - MZ twins can only have shared inner layers (amnion and chorion) and outer layer placenta, while DZ twins have shared placenta only.

    (b) DNA fingerprinting - checking DNA codes could reveal the genetic similarity between twins.

    (c) Skin graft - MZ twins can share each other's skin or blood, while DZ may not share the same due to development of antibodies against such case.

    Use of twins -

    (a) Determination of heritability (impact of genes on character development, phenotype etc.) - MZ twins having same DNA are genetically identical, and thus any difference between them should be environmentally influenced.
    Thus level of heritability could be known.

    Similarly, DZ twins have different DNA's and comparison between MZ and DZ twins could ascertain that which particular characteristic is more dependent on genes or on environment.
    Ex - If MZ twins are more susceptible to polio than DZ twins, this shows that polio is having high genetic susceptibility.

    Thus, twin method could given information on which disease is caused due to genetics and which due to environment and thus specific cure could be found.

  • dog said:

    Question 2 - Genealogical Method

    Genealogical method is use to trace the lineage or descent of a particular group. The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes.

    Pedigree Chart is used to show genealogy. In order to get the relationships and various kinship terms, the 'ego' is interviewed in objective way, by asking name of the person's who 'bore' or 'begot' him/her. The general terms of father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt have different meanings in different cultures and couldn't be used directly.

    Genealogy helps in census and helps in serving various functions such as marriage restrictions, property inheritance rules, claims to chiefship or other heredity roles, performance of magic/rituals etc.

    Some problems related to Genealogical method are repetitive names, adoption of children in a particular society, cultural taboo to not take names of dead people, suspicious population which thinks that genealogical studies could be used for harmful things such as taxation etc.

    Genealogy is very important technique in Anthropological studies, and systematic and effective techniques are to be used by anthropologist to arrive at right information useful for his research.

    Please review.

    criticism u have written are good.. but ur answer suffers from 2 problems..

    firstly,, u write in very cluttered manner.. will for sure frustrate examiner .. no sequence or logical coherent flow..

    secondly.. u write too generalistic.. u could have mentioned W. H Rivers and his Toda study..

    in this answer u have confused genealogy with pedigree, great difference between them.. pedigree is scientific interpretation used in physical anthro whereas genealogy is traditional interpretation of ancestrally defined relations and used in social anthro.. both are charts but description is different..

    another issue.. the part i have made bold.. see this can be written in a better way.. 'Genealogy is a cultural form and thus terms for different relatives are to be elicited as per local practice'

    another issue is "The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes. "...
    this thing should come later ...


    ur answer structure is cluttered.. it should be like this..

    first say.. River in his study of Toda introduced this method

    second.. what the method is.. and how it is different from pedigree

    third.. different notations used..

    Fourth... application.

    fifth.. criticism
  • dog said:

    Question 2 - Genealogical Method

    Genealogical method is use to trace the lineage or descent of a particular group. The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes.

    Pedigree Chart is used to show genealogy. In order to get the relationships and various kinship terms, the 'ego' is interviewed in objective way, by asking name of the person's who 'bore' or 'begot' him/her. The general terms of father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt have different meanings in different cultures and couldn't be used directly.

    Genealogy helps in census and helps in serving various functions such as marriage restrictions, property inheritance rules, claims to chiefship or other heredity roles, performance of magic/rituals etc.

    Some problems related to Genealogical method are repetitive names, adoption of children in a particular society, cultural taboo to not take names of dead people, suspicious population which thinks that genealogical studies could be used for harmful things such as taxation etc.

    Genealogy is very important technique in Anthropological studies, and systematic and effective techniques are to be used by anthropologist to arrive at right information useful for his research.

    Please review.

    criticism u have written are good.. but ur answer suffers from 2 problems..

    firstly,, u write in very cluttered manner.. will for sure frustrate examiner .. no sequence or logical coherent flow..

    secondly.. u write too generalistic.. u could have mentioned W. H Rivers and his Toda study..

    in this answer u have confused genealogy with pedigree, great difference between them.. pedigree is scientific interpretation used in physical anthro whereas genealogy is traditional interpretation of ancestrally defined relations and used in social anthro.. both are charts but description is different..

    another issue.. the part i have made bold.. see this can be written in a better way.. 'Genealogy is a cultural form and thus terms for different relatives are to be elicited as per local practice'

    another issue is "The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes. "...
    this thing should come later ...


    ur answer structure is cluttered.. it should be like this..

    first say.. River in his study of Toda introduced this method to improve the analysis of social organization. it aimed to analyze interpersonal relations in kin groups and socio-cultural arrangements..

    second.. what the method is.. (it is method to reconstruct family trees by tracing lineage of particular group through 'ego' ) and how it is different from pedigree

    third.. different notations used..

    Fourth... application.

    fifth.. criticism
  • Genealogy is very important technique in Anthropological studies, and systematic and effective techniques are to be used by anthropologist to arrive at right information useful for his research.

    lines like this don't carry any marks.. points should have substance..
  • edited April 2016
    it should be in introduction if u really want to write it.. because this question will come in short note so only 150 words scope..

    it should be written as.. in anthropological studies systematic and effective techniques are to be used in fieldwork to gather information for further research. genealogy is one such technique.
  • Hi, i am planning to form an online/offline group for:
    1. preparing answers for each and every question of previous year papers of anthro.
    2. preparing topics which are not covered thru these questions.
    3. collecting and discussing current affairs relevant to anthro

    the group will be a small one with 6-8 dedicated people. we can discuss the platform and format for doing the above tasks.
    if you are interested inbox me. we can discuss further how to do it
    About me- 4 mains and 1 interview
  • dog said:

    Question 2 - Genealogical Method

    Genealogical method is use to trace the lineage or descent of a particular group. The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes.

    Pedigree Chart is used to show genealogy. In order to get the relationships and various kinship terms, the 'ego' is interviewed in objective way, by asking name of the person's who 'bore' or 'begot' him/her. The general terms of father, mother, brother, sister, uncle, aunt have different meanings in different cultures and couldn't be used directly.

    Genealogy helps in census and helps in serving various functions such as marriage restrictions, property inheritance rules, claims to chiefship or other heredity roles, performance of magic/rituals etc.

    Some problems related to Genealogical method are repetitive names, adoption of children in a particular society, cultural taboo to not take names of dead people, suspicious population which thinks that genealogical studies could be used for harmful things such as taxation etc.

    Genealogy is very important technique in Anthropological studies, and systematic and effective techniques are to be used by anthropologist to arrive at right information useful for his research.

    Please review.

    criticism u have written are good.. but ur answer suffers from 2 problems..

    firstly,, u write in very cluttered manner.. will for sure frustrate examiner .. no sequence or logical coherent flow..

    secondly.. u write too generalistic.. u could have mentioned W. H Rivers and his Toda study..

    in this answer u have confused genealogy with pedigree, great difference between them.. pedigree is scientific interpretation used in physical anthro whereas genealogy is traditional interpretation of ancestrally defined relations and used in social anthro.. both are charts but description is different..

    another issue.. the part i have made bold.. see this can be written in a better way.. 'Genealogy is a cultural form and thus terms for different relatives are to be elicited as per local practice'

    another issue is "The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes. "...
    this thing should come later ...


    ur answer structure is cluttered.. it should be like this..

    first say.. River in his study of Toda introduced this method to improve the analysis of social organization. it aimed to analyze interpersonal relations in kin groups and socio-cultural arrangements..

    second.. what the method is.. (it is method to reconstruct family trees by tracing lineage of particular group through 'ego' ) and how it is different from pedigree

    third.. different notations used..

    Fourth... application.

    fifth.. criticism

    Radesh could u please write full answer for this. As i am unable to find exact content for Genealogical Method.
  • @45dftp .. i have already mentioned some part of answer above..

    criticism u have written are good.. but ur answer suffers from 2 problems..

    firstly,, u write in very cluttered manner.. will for sure frustrate examiner .. no sequence or logical coherent flow..

    secondly.. u write too generalistic.. u could have mentioned W. H Rivers and his Toda study..

    in this answer u have confused genealogy with pedigree, great difference between them.. pedigree is scientific interpretation used in physical anthro whereas genealogy is traditional interpretation of ancestrally defined relations and used in social anthro.. both are charts but description is different..

    another issue.. the part i have made bold.. see this can be written in a better way.. 'Genealogy is a cultural form and thus terms for different relatives are to be elicited as per local practice'

    another issue is "The Genealogical studies are helpful in ascertaining the demographic expansion and settlement pattern. They are also very helpful in understanding various social complex phenomena such as who gets involved in various ceremonies such as birth, death, marriage, and other ceremonial processes. "...
    this thing should come later ...


    ur answer structure is cluttered.. it should be like this..

    first say.. River in his study of Toda introduced this method to improve the analysis of social organization. it aimed to analyze interpersonal relations in kin groups and socio-cultural arrangements..

    second.. what the method is.. (it is method to reconstruct family trees by tracing lineage of particular group through 'ego' ) and how it is different from pedigree

    third.. different notations used..

    Fourth... application.

    fifth ... criticism
  • Hi, i am planning to form an online/offline group for:
    1. preparing answers for each and every question of previous year papers of anthro.
    2. preparing topics which are not covered thru these questions.
    3. collecting and discussing current affairs relevant to anthro

    the group will be a small one with 6-8 dedicated people. we can discuss the platform and format for doing the above tasks.
    if you are interested inbox me. we can discuss further how to do it
    About me- 4 mains and 1 interview

    brother this thing can work only for some topics not all.. u r mistaking by assuming anthro to be same as what is was before 2011.. see now only one optional so upsc will go in depth.. u can see from last few years papers

  • Hi, i am planning to form an online/offline group for:
    1. preparing answers for each and every question of previous year papers of anthro.
    2. preparing topics which are not covered thru these questions.
    3. collecting and discussing current affairs relevant to anthro

    the group will be a small one with 6-8 dedicated people. we can discuss the platform and format for doing the above tasks.
    if you are interested inbox me. we can discuss further how to do it
    About me- 4 mains and 1 interview

    brother this thing can work only for some topics not all.. u r mistaking by assuming anthro to be same as what is was before 2011.. see now only one optional so upsc will go in depth.. u can see from last few years papers

    moreover, now they are going in areas whcih they never used to ask earlier.. like last year sacred and profane. so now even syllabus is huge.. not those 150 questions type anthro..
  • dog said:

    Question 17 - Method and Methodology
    Question 18 - Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies.

    Method is the root for 'methodology', thus ought to be defined first.

    Method means the way in which we do things. In research methods, the tools, processes and ways by which the data is collected in known as methods.

    When we add 'ology' which means 'branch of knowledge' or 'discipline of study' then 'methodology' means the study of research methods. In it various methods are researched, their functioning explained, and in what scenario they should be used is determined.

    Ex - Population census uses Schedule method, where enumerators go to each house to gather data.
    Taxation filing uses forms, Questionnaire are used in surveys, personal interview is used in job interviews.

    So, which method to be used in anthropology depends on nature of the problem.

    Technique refers to the way in which the research methods are implemented. For ex - personal interview could be recorded by using tape recorder, questionnaire could be sent by email or fax or by post.

    more than 80% of ur answer is wrong.. its order is not clear.. even it is not clear what methodology method and techniques are.. u have written 'method' and 'technology' wrong.. and methodology written partially correct.. don't follow coaching notes of BT blindly people..
  • dog said:

    Question 17 - Method and Methodology
    Question 18 - Discuss the difference between the technique, method and methodology as employed in anthropological studies.

    Method is the root for 'methodology', thus ought to be defined first.

    Method means the way in which we do things. In research methods, the tools, processes and ways by which the data is collected in known as methods.

    When we add 'ology' which means 'branch of knowledge' or 'discipline of study' then 'methodology' means the study of research methods. In it various methods are researched, their functioning explained, and in what scenario they should be used is determined.

    Ex - Population census uses Schedule method, where enumerators go to each house to gather data.
    Taxation filing uses forms, Questionnaire are used in surveys, personal interview is used in job interviews.

    So, which method to be used in anthropology depends on nature of the problem.

    Technique refers to the way in which the research methods are implemented. For ex - personal interview could be recorded by using tape recorder, questionnaire could be sent by email or fax or by post.

    more than 80% of ur answer is wrong.. its order is not clear.. even it is not clear what methodology method and techniques are.. u have written 'method' and 'technology' wrong.. and methodology written partially correct.. don't follow coaching notes of BT blindly people..
    Thanks for the review. But you have not pointed out exactly what is wrong in the answer and declared it to be 80% wrong. If you can write a full fledged answer or point out exact mistakes I would be highly thankful. Anyway no one is interested except you and me :D
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