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Prelims 2016 General Studies Concept Clarity and Discussion

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  • tan theta said:

    what is the difference between 4G and LTE

    key point is True 4g is Advanced LTE..means LTE /simple WiMAX etc are first gen 4g developed in 2010 time internationally.. true 4g came in 2012 period.. difference is speed bandwidth or data rate..for ex LTE has maximum speed of 100Mbps but for true 4g it can be upto 1Gbps..so basically greeb nation ka current 4g advanced nation ka LTE k brabr speed deta h :-) hope its clear and simple thing we need to know on topic

    @tan theta
    Being IAS... 4 U Onlyyy... :-)


    " Woods are lovely dark and deep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    And miles to go before I sleep.. before I sleep. " :)

    #HumHongeKamyaabEkDin :)
  • edited December 2015
    mevhravi said:

    is there any limit to this culture and Architecture syllabus

    Yupp..unless ur mental faculties can afford and give you feelings that you have read something for this part too..something :-)

    Read ncerts thoroughly plus ccrt web plus nitin singhania notes ..its more than enough for such satisfaction feelings g
    Being IAS... 4 U Onlyyy... :-)


    " Woods are lovely dark and deep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    And miles to go before I sleep.. before I sleep. " :)

    #HumHongeKamyaabEkDin :)
  • ye Sci-Tech ka section hinud k print edition mein aana band ho gya h kya ???
  • What is URP and MRP in context of Poverty estimation?
    One day, perhaps, love may die of disuse, left to rust in wind and weather.
  • IWRA said:

    What is URP and MRP in context of Poverty estimation?

    bhai kahan mila ye .....itna depth mein kyun jaa rhe ho ..... ab BPL level caloric intake etc. pe decide hota h.....URP aur MRP 1994-95 mein hota tha
  • edited December 2015
    sine said:

    IWRA said:

    What is URP and MRP in context of Poverty estimation?

    bhai kahan mila ye .....itna depth mein kyun jaa rhe ho ..... ab BPL level caloric intake etc. pe decide hota h.....URP aur MRP 1994-95 mein hota tha
    Uniform Reference Period (URP) vs Mixed Reference Period (MRP)

    Until 1993-94, consumption information collected by the NSSO was based on the Uniform Reference Period (URP), which measured consumption across a 30-day recall period. That is, survey respondents were asked about their consumption in the previous 30 days. From 1999-2000 onwards, the NSSO switched to a method known as the Mixed Reference Period (MRP). The MRP measures consumption of five low-frequency items (clothing, footwear, durables, education and institutional health expenditure) over the previous year, and all other items over the previous 30 days. That is to say, for the five items, survey respondents are asked about consumption in the previous one year. For the remaining items, they are asked about consumption in the previous 30 days.

    http://www.prsindia.org/theprsblog/?p=1082
    One day, perhaps, love may die of disuse, left to rust in wind and weather.
  • @Sleeplessnights_89 @trying_tobawesm @Babur @popeyee_jahaji

    Can any help me with National Disaster Relief Fund (NDRF)
    Are PM's Relief Fund and National Disaster Relief Fund same ?
    guys in middle of notes making thats why tagged for quicker response

    no, both are different...this is what i recall from FC 14th n other sources
    NDRF
     Another problem that the force is battling continuously is ambiguity in the control and command structure. While the MHA controls funds and execution, it is the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) that has administrative control over the force. Hence, there is always a tussle between the two. The NDMA being an autonomous body whose members are appointed by the government, the force has to deal with two bosses for everything that it needs; this complicates and delays processes.
     Lack of fund, incentive

    The NDRF is financed through the levy of a cess on certain items, chargeable to excise and customs duty, and approved annually through the Finance Bill. The requirement for funds beyond what is available under the NDRF is met through general budgetary resources.

    अभी कम्पनियाँ CSR के अंतर्गत प्रधानमन्त्री राहत कोष (PM's Relief Fund and National Disaster Relief Fun) अथवा केन्द्रीय या राज्य द्वारा सामाजिक और आर्थिक विकास के लिए स्थापित निधि में धन मुहैय्या करा सकती है हमारी सिफारिश है की इसी प्रकार के प्रावधान NDRF को निधियां उपलब्ध कराने के सम्बद्ध में किये जाए
    मैं खड़ा हूँ उसी दोराहे पे, आज भी इंतज़ार में तेरे !
    या तो ज़िन्दगी आये तेरे लिबास में! या मैं चलूँ फिरदौस की तलाश में !!

  •  Another problem that the force is battling continuously is ambiguity in the control and command structure. While the MHA controls funds and execution, it is the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) that has administrative control over the force. Hence, there is always a tussle between the two. The NDMA being an autonomous body whose members are appointed by the government, the force has to deal with two bosses for everything that it needs; this complicates and delays processes.
     Lack of fund, incentive

    The NDRF is financed through the levy of a cess on certain items, chargeable to excise and customs duty, and approved annually through the Finance Bill. The requirement for funds beyond what is available under the NDRF is met through general budgetary resources.

    अभी कम्पनियाँ CSR के अंतर्गत प्रधानमन्त्री राहत कोष (PM's Relief Fund and National Disaster Relief Fund) अथवा केन्द्रीय या राज्य द्वारा सामाजिक और आर्थिक विकास के लिए स्थापित निधि में धन मुहैय्या करा सकती है हमारी सिफारिश है की इसी प्रकार के प्रावधान NDRF को निधियां उपलब्ध कराने के सम्बद्ध में किये जाए

    pata nahi NDRF information bahut kam hai
    search on NDRFund redirected me to NDMA seems like i was on right place
    thanx @popeyee_jahaji

    The Law of Detachment - be equanimous to both victories and defeats
  • Please let me know the difference between contract farming and corporate farming. Is corporate farming a subset of contract farming?
  • tan theta said:

    why highway sector is preferring Toll-operate-Transfer ( TOT) model over Buiit-Operate-Transfer ( BOT) model.
    And what is difference between DFBOT and BOT model.

    And please dont explain About HAM model , everybody knows it

    @tan theta no harm in explaining HAM model. anyone who can explain the above models?
    सत्यमेव जयते
  • edited December 2015
    sreaan said:

    Please let me know the difference between contract farming and corporate farming. Is corporate farming a subset of contract farming?

    Basically name says the difference..

    Contract farming is farming under contract ie between firm and farmer whereby farmer agrees to provide a pre determined quantity n quality crop produce at a predetermined price on a predetermined time..in lieu the firm provides support services to farmer for ex predetermined price of produce, credit,high quality seeds,extension services etc- a mutually win win situation ex PepsiCo India tie up with punjab potato producers



    Corporate farming is a term used to describe companies that own or influence farms and agricultural practices on a large scale. This includes not only corporate ownership of farms and selling of agricultural products, but also the roles of these companies in influencing agricultural education, research, and public policy through funding initiatives and lobbying efforts.-wiki defined

    Means corporate farming and contract farming is diffrent in following ways-

    1) corporate farming company mostly owns the farm and all expenses are done by parent company while in contract case farm owned by farmer nd company just provides Support services only and contracts to purchase produce later at a fix price.

    2) corporate farming generally done at large scale farm level

    3) corporate are more actively involved in corporate farming . I.O.W. Corporate himself doing farming at a large extent as a support business.

    However few areas both looks same but two are different in reality with overlap in goals but means are very different in true sense in the two !! Hope it clears most doubts @sreaan ..!!

    Being IAS... 4 U Onlyyy... :-)


    " Woods are lovely dark and deep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    And miles to go before I sleep.. before I sleep. " :)

    #HumHongeKamyaabEkDin :)
  • sreaan said:

    Please let me know the difference between contract farming and corporate farming. Is corporate farming a subset of contract farming?

    Basically name says the difference..

    Contract farming is farming under contract ie between firm and farmer whereby farmer agrees to provide a pre determined quantity n quality crop produce at a predetermined price on a predetermined time..in lieu the firm provides support services to farmer for ex predetermined price of produce, credit,high quality seeds,extension services etc- a mutually win win situation ex PepsiCo India tie up with punjab potato producers



    Corporate farming is a term used to describe companies that own or influence farms and agricultural practices on a large scale. This includes not only corporate ownership of farms and selling of agricultural products, but also the roles of these companies in influencing agricultural education, research, and public policy through funding initiatives and lobbying efforts.-wiki defined

    Means corporate farming and contract farming is diffrent in following ways-

    1) corporate farming company mostly owns the farm and all expenses are done by parent company while in contract case farm owned by farmer nd company just provides Support services only and contracts to purchase produce later at a fix price.

    2) corporate farming generally done at large scale farm level

    3) corporate are more actively involved in corporate farming . I.O.W. Corporate himself doing farming at a large extent as a support business.

    However few areas both looks same but two are different in reality with overlap in goals but means are very different in true sense in the two !! Hope it clears most doubts @sreaan ..!!

    Yes it is clear now. Thanks alot @Yo_Yo_Choti_Singh :smile:
  • ockquote class="Quote" rel="Teddy">

    Could someone please clarify about the powers of parliament with regard to the international treaties signed by the executive ?

    As the treaties are not bound by parliaments ratification..what are the mechanisms that the legislature has in order to refute such treaties or nullify them

    Posting it for the second Time guys!pls clarify!

    Context btao iska ..??
    see treaties are of both type legally binding as well as non binding..
    Ratification k lye koi time nahi set hota h Har countries ki Parliament apne according ratify karti h India ne bhi kafi treaties sign ki h lekin abhi tak ratify nahi kiya h ..legally binding ko agar refute karte h then uska alag se case handle kiya jata h fine,sanction wagerah lagaye ja sakte h lekin country to country aur situation par depend karta h ye..
    waise GS k lye itna detail me mat jao..

    Okay thanks!but my doubt is that according to article 73 the executive has powers to enter treaties but just consider a situation where the govt signs a bilateral treaty which is not particularly in favour of the country! So what are the checks and balances on such treaties because on many occasions they don't even present it on the parliament! Article 246 and 253 will only come into picture when the treaties are tabled on the floor of the house !

    May be my doubt sounds stupid but couldn't get a satisfactory reply from any source source :neutral:
  • Teddy said:

    Could someone please clarify about the powers of parliament with regard to the international treaties signed by the executive ?

    As the treaties are not bound by parliaments ratification..what are the mechanisms that the legislature has in order to refute such treaties or nullify them

    Posting it for the second Time guys!pls clarify!

    Context btao iska ..??
    see treaties are of both type legally binding as well as non binding..
    Ratification k lye koi time nahi set hota h Har countries ki Parliament apne according ratify karti h India ne bhi kafi treaties sign ki h lekin abhi tak ratify nahi kiya h ..legally binding ko agar refute karte h then uska alag se case handle kiya jata h fine,sanction wagerah lagaye ja sakte h lekin country to country aur situation par depend karta h ye..
    waise GS k lye itna detail me mat jao..
    Okay thanks!but my doubt is that according to article 73 the executive has powers to enter treaties but just consider a situation where the govt signs a bilateral treaty which is not particularly in favour of the country! So what are the checks and balances on such treaties because on many occasions they don't even present it on the parliament! Article 246 and 253 will only come into picture when the treaties are tabled on the floor of the house !

    May be my doubt sounds stupid but couldn't get a satisfactory reply from any source
  • @calvin1984
    But in none of the articles its mentioned that a compulsory ratification is required !so isn't there a lack of checks and balances?
  • # Random read "Large Cardamom-The Pride of Sikkim"

    why am i mentioning it :: just read it for sure you won't be disappointed it's something you should know it has its own importance

    Large cardamom is an ancient spice-cum-medicinal herb of Northeastern India
    Its cultivation is confined in Eastern Himalaya covering Sikkim, West Bengal (Darjeeling hills) and Arunachal Pradesh

    India is one of the largest producer and exporter (1000 MT capsules valued Rs. 12 crores) in the world
    At national level, Sikkim contributes 89 % large cardamom area and 86 % production. Large cardamom based agroforestry system generate 40-50 crores revenue to the State
    A farmer can earn revenue of Rs. 25,000 to 30,000 from one hectare plantations

    Soil Requirement: Well drained sandy loams having pH range of 5.0 and 6.0

    Shade requirement: 30-50 % shade is optimum. Therefore, grown under the trees and this system is called large cardamom based agroforestry system. It is an ecologically sustainable system.


    PS: So its USP is its a herb cum spice
    its black cardamom please do not confuse it with green cardamom
    Sikkim is the largest producer constituting a lion share of Indian and world market. It is purely an organic crop cultivated in Sikkim.
    you can add it as an example in your agroforestry answer

    Point to note
    Recently cardamom has been in news too but it was in context to Cardamom hill reserve where green cardamom is being cultivated ie in Kerala and Karnataka .
    why it was in news ??
    farmers are being badly affected by falling price of cardamom also Kerala State Biodiversity Board (KSBB) was abandoned a project to restore the ravaged ecology of the Cardamom Hill Reserve (CHR) in Idukki . This was in context to green cardamom do refer to wikipedia and Hindu for details as well as NCERT for its cultivation requirement

    as right now i am focussing on BLACK CARDAMOM or LARGER CARDAMOM :) which is much sustainably grown as compared to GREEN CARDAMOM


    I hope its not confusing.. and here's the picture of it
    and when someone ask about queen of spices remember its just not from kerala.. North east state has also something in its store and that is Black Cardamom :) :wink:
    800px-Cardamom_Large.JPG
    800 x 600 - 140K
    Sometimes you have to kind of die inside in order to rise from your own ashes and believe in yourself and love yourself to become a new person
  • Very good and useful thread.
    Carry on the momentum..
    कसूर ना उनका है ना मेरा, हम दोनो रिश्तों की रसमें निभाते रहे;वो दोस्ती का एहसास जताते रहे, हम मोहबत को दिल में छुपाते रहे।
    @summum bonum
  • edited December 2015
    :)
    Pre 2015- Fail
    Pre 2016- Fail
    CSIR Life Science NET- 18 June
    Road 2018 (Last Attempt)
  • #random read: Sultanpur park

    Sultanpur National Park, formerly known as Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary, is located in Gurgaon district in Haryana in Sultanpur area.

    The park is also named as Dr. Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary after this famous Indian ornithologist and naturalist to pay tribute to his miscellaneous efforts in natural conservation.

    Why am i talking about it ?

    Migratory Birds Every year during monsoons and winters over hundreds of migratory bird species visit here in search of shelter and feed.

    Why it was in news
    Last year in january 45 birds have been found dead in the Sultanpur National Park, 
    And new virus that i came across was "avian influenza virus (H5N1)"
    Which was thought as cause of these deaths
    But the birds died of pesticide poisoning from neighboring fields.

    While in september'15 70 new species of migratory bird was spotted here


    Sultanpur park's story so far

    It is a seasonal wetland and is affected most by the activities happening in its catchment area. The land use has changed rapidly around park boundary due to this there is reduction in the area available for groundwater recharge and hindering the water flow to the
    lake.
    So lake is drying its area
    is decreasing its all hampering its habitat factor of birding and nesting
    Hence the gov declared it as eco sensitive zone in bid to restore its natural hydrology


    Presently revived artificially by using pump water from Yamna River to sustain the migratory counts of avi-faunas.


    Few terms related to this park

    Seasonal wetlands
    seasonal wetlands are flooded in the winter and begin to dry out in the summer. The moisture content of these biomes changes seasonally as opposed to a daily cycle. Rains arrive in the winter and begin to fill the area with water. With the arrival of water, insects, reptiles, birds, and small mammals populate the wetlands. As spring arrives, the plants in the wetlands begin to grow and bloom, providing an additional food sources for the residents.

    Eco sensitive zone

    The concept of ecologically sensitive areas is very much an Indian invention, rooted in attempts by civil society to use the EPA(environment protection act) to promote sustainable development alongside protection of the natural heritage.
    These areas act as “shock absorbers” to the protected areas by regulating and managing the activities around such areas. 


    A new thing to know
    H5N1 flu, commonly known as avian influenza ("bird flu").
    It can cause illness in human too.
    H5N1's bird adapted strain is called HPAI also (just remember it )


    Ps : And being seasonal wetland
    And eco sensitive zone make this national park worth mentioning :)

    Finally a picture of it my favorite part :D


    images (2).jpg
    406 x 270 - 35K
    Sometimes you have to kind of die inside in order to rise from your own ashes and believe in yourself and love yourself to become a new person
  • What is the climate of Assam Valley ?

    Tropical or Subtropical ?
    The Law of Detachment - be equanimous to both victories and defeats
  • edited January 2016
    @Defcon1
    temp and pollution are related. As mercury dips I.e. the temp falls, the air near ground cools. Its not able to rise. Consequently , the pollutants in the air are not able to rise and spread off at higher altitudes (troposphere/ stratosphere). This blanket of concentrated pollutants near the ground surface makes it more dangerous. So, keeping the pollutants level same, its the temperature change that can make it more harmful.
    PS: not with geo optional. Others pls add on/ correct.
  • Nuralain said:

    What is the climate of Assam Valley ?

    Tropical or Subtropical ?

    Tropical. Characterized by high temperature and rainfall.
    Hey
    Pls highlight how to identify tropical and subtropical climate. Is there any region specific or other ways to demarcate? As far as Assam is concerned I would not have hesitated to mark subtropical.

    PS: if its stupid, then also pls answer.
  • some geography doubts ::
    1) what is the nature of A&N islands ? can we consider them to be continuation of Himalayas? there are definitely volcanic islands like barren ? but are all islands volcanic ? or are there fold mountains too ?
    2) which part of india has the broadest continental shelf , east or west coast ?
    in NCERT it is given that east , but in geography optional , shabbir sir taught us that west oast has broad continental shelf and east has broad continental margins !!! so in prelims what to mark ?
    3) does CORIOLLIS force affect counter equatorial current ?
    if any one of you who are going to any classes , pls consult your geography teacher and find right answer :)

  • #random reads ::Purulia chhau

    Lets start with basic
    What is Chhau

    Chhau is popular dance in tribal-dominated areas of Purulia, Seraikela and Mayurbhanj in the three states of Bengal, Jharkhand and Orissa, respectively.

    Note its name and state where it belongs

    But before discussing Purulia chhau lets discuss the difference between these three

    The main difference among these Chhau styles lies in the use of masks.
    Purulia and Seraikela styles of Chhau use masks,
    Mayurbhanj style does not.


    Seraikela masks are more sophisticated but Purulia masks, with towering headgear, are
    more dramatic.


    How chaau evolved ??
    Chhau was inspired by martial art but with time ritualistic element along with a dance element was added to it .you say it as war dance logically

    Literal meaning of each form
    Purulia Chhau centre around a fight.
    Mayurbhanj Chhau is called ruk-naar-naacha which literally means 'the dance of defence and attack',
    Seraikela
    Chhau is phari-khandaa-khela, meaning 'the play of the shield and
    the sword'.

    Note see you may find it unnecesaary but i will not give you incomplete info .. ;)

    Now coming back to our discussion
    Why special mention to PURULIA CHHAU


    Because its in lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO

    Thus this tag prooves it is as an essential component and as a repository of cultural diversity and of creative expression

     Being developed and sustained by the people themselves this makes it distinct from other two Seraikella and Mayurbhanj Chhau, which enjoyed royal patronage.

    Another makes it stand out against other two is the earthiness factor Its masks are crafted by potters who make clay images of Hindu gods and goddesses ( aka mask are made of clay yet vibrant so i guess its simplicity that you can count on it )

    This Chhau is not narrated in words but depicted only through dance movements. so music plays an imp role..


    Ps

    See you have to remember what is chhau??
    Ans a tribal dance form with an inclination towards theatre ..it has dance it has drama


    Its three form and place where it is associated

    Three style and three states


    Usp of Purulia chhau

    Simplicty clay mask
    Is in the elite list of Intangible Cultural Heritage of UNESCO
    A note here :: wikipedia says chhau is in the elite list but to be more specific its purulia chhau i have checked it in database of Intangible cultural heritage of asia
    You too can refer if there is some doubt


    How chhau evolved


    It started a war dance but has evolved with time as hindu mythological theme from Mahabharata and Ramayana are depicted but still central theme is always a fight scene :)


    //Graciousness of dance but yet powerful movement makes it worth watching #personal opinion

    Picture one is clay mask
    Second one is of dance

    Period


    Screenshot_2016-01-01-14-42-04.png
    540 x 960 - 635K
    India_A07_ParuliaChhau.jpg
    704 x 226 - 58K
    Sometimes you have to kind of die inside in order to rise from your own ashes and believe in yourself and love yourself to become a new person
  • Toska said:

    Neyawn said:

    Defcon1 said:

    Toska said:

    Here is the exact question of 2013 prelims:

    "Variations in the length of daytime and nighttime from season to season are due to
    (a) the earth's rotation on its axis
    (b) the earth's revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
    (c) latitudinal position of the place
    (d) revolution of the earth on a tilted axis"

    What is the correct answer ? Please explain also in two lines.

    B.
    Arrey its simple , sardi aatey hi day hort and in summer vice versa.
    due to revolution of earth around sn in ecliptical , agar circular hota tab nahi hota

    No this is wrong. Earth's revolution in an elliptical orbit does not cause seasons. When earth is far from sun, then by your logic there should be winter all over earth and when earth comes closest, then it should be summer all over earth.

    But it doesnt happen. Just think about it. Think on the lines - when there is summer in Northern Hemisphere, then there is winter in Southern hemisphere - and vice versa.

    Seaons occur because of the tilt of the earth. Think about it and we will come to an answer.


    So then in this question:

    "Variations in the length of daytime and nighttime from season to season are due to
    (a) the earth's rotation on its axis
    (b) the earth's revolution round the sun in an elliptical manner
    (c) latitudinal position of the place
    (d) revolution of the earth on a tilted axis"


    should the answer be (d) ?

    But I guess (b) is mentioned as correct ans... confused now... :(

    Anyone.. ?
  • ^^ Thanks @Teddy ... I also thought it is (d), but it was my mistake that I relied on some pathetic answer keys like: http://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/ias-prelims-2013-paper-1-solved-question-paper-1369130831-1

    and got unnecessarily confused.. And thus wanted a confirm answer..

    Only now i realised that I could have checked on UPSC website too, where it is given (d) only, same as what you said and I thought too..

    Sry for troubling you all with repeated query..
  • Toska said:

    ^^ Thanks @Teddy ... I also thought it is (d), but it was my mistake that I relied on some pathetic answer keys like: http://www.jagranjosh.com/articles/ias-prelims-2013-paper-1-solved-question-paper-1369130831-1

    and got unnecessarily confused.. And thus wanted a confirm answer..

    Only now i realised that I could have checked on UPSC website too, where it is given (d) only, same as what you said and I thought too..

    Sry for troubling you all with repeated query..

    its becoz of the tilted axis we say that the in summer the sun is in the northern hemisphere and during winter the sun is in the southern hemisphere . Option 'b' is is good for aphelion and perihelion is good reason for occurrence of tides.
  • Nuralain said:

    tan theta said:

    How business sector can promote stability and peace in conflict affected area or high risk area. Critically comment with respect to India-Pakistan relations.

    India Pakistan - JnK - Why conflict ? Terrorism - exploit youth's vulnerabilities - High unemployment, development deficit, governance deficit.
    Business sector can provide jobs, wean away youth from going sarhad par to join terrorists, provide necessary infrastructure and linkages to already existing industries like handicrafts. With people indulged in trade, they would be less inclined to respond to separatists calls for shutdowns etc. Trade with nearby regions - PoK , Pakistan in general - access to a wider market with similar choices - prosperity.
    Risks - security - businesses not able to prosper - also anti national elements do not let anything flourish because it hurts their own interests. Conducive atmosphere required for business - stability - peace.
    +CSR point can be added to ....to boost education, and social welfare....investment in infrastructure
  • good one !
    state interview1 mains1 pt 3
    upcoming:Bpsc M
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