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Differenciate between Ethics, Morals, and Values?

edited October 2015 in Ethics
All are quite close. Please share your views.

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  • Ethics( नीति ): Guidelines set for society about right or wrong.
    Morals( नैतिकता ): Standards of behaviour; better the behaviour, higher the morals.
    Values( सिद्धान्त ): Beliefs that an individual thinks to be true.
  • Values : Values are basic convictions such that some objects or events are viewed more favorably than other.

    Morals: Set of values that are principally personal are called morals.

    Ethics : Set of values that are principally influenced by society are called ethics.

    For eg.:
    1) Creating separate threads for each question is against the ethics of the forum
    2) Posting doubt/questions thread for clearing doubts and helping others is your personal value
    3) somewhere inside you, there is a feeling that its not right to post questions with separate threads and instead put in the Ethics thread or the Mains thread, that is moral.

    any feeback on this..?
    Our survival instinct is our single greatest source of inspiration. - Dr. Mann
  • edited September 2015
    Good definations. Could somebody add few illustration from public or professional life.

    Say "to be punctual" in office

    This is Ethics, Moral or value?
    It looks like its a good ethics. It can also be value of person. However, "not punctual" cannot be said immoral i think.
  • KEY POINT DIFFERENCES AMONG ETHICS TERMS

    1) Ethics (vs Norms) =>

    *codified (informal)

    *objective (subjective)

    *rational (irrational or both)

    * universal (for small grp)

    2)Morals (vs Values) =>

    * values that provides behavioural rules by which we makes decision b/w Right and Wrong (may be for other purposes also ex Aesthatic values!)

    *more consistent and stable(lesser)

    * greater social element within them(lesser)

    * All morals are values (not vice-versa true)

    * More emotions in them (lesser emotions)


    3) Values (vs Attitude)

    *Non-object specific (object-oriented)

    *ambiguous (specific)

    * less powerful (more)

    * sophisticated ideals (more concrete)

    4) Ethics and Morals (vs Values and Attitudes)

    * More prohibition than prescriptions ( More prescriptions than prohibition)

    * prescribes" don't do" mainly (prescribes " do it" generally)

    * restrains us (motivates us)




    Hope you all understand format..i am unable to make table here so used bracket system..think and analyze.. Hope it is relevant somewhat to ethics syllabus :-) ATB

    <:-P
    Being IAS... 4 U Onlyyy... :-)


    " Woods are lovely dark and deep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    And miles to go before I sleep.. before I sleep. " :)

    #HumHongeKamyaabEkDin :)
  • Good definations. Could somebody add few illustration from public or professional life.

    Say "to be punctual" in office

    This is Ethics, Moral or value?
    It looks like its a good ethics. It can also be value of person. However, "not punctual" cannot be said immoral i think.
    If you work in an organization which has a culture of people reaching office on time, punctuality may be ethics of that organization. "It is expected of you.." means ethics.


    Punctuality may be a personal morality. For example, you may feel that it would be morally wrong to not be available at the time of appointment. You may feel that you should not be late for your date and keep your partner waiting.
    So, morality is your personal angle of seeing something as right or wrong.



    Value is something deep. A strong conviction, which makes you prefer one thing over another. For example, you may value time. You may feel that a person progresses only by utilizing his time properly, and hence not a single moment of time should be wasted.

    Your morality of punctuality may be derived from how much you value time. (Or punctuality may be a separate value also, depending on how deep is your conviction about it.)

    Value need not be personal. A society as a whole may value something while other may not.
    For example, Indian society is known for its traditional values...we are more staus quoist in social attitude.
    American society value individualism more. They don't try to interfere in a person's choice of career, hobby or lover.

    Hope it is clear to you now. Please let me know if there is some other doubt.
    (Please Tag me whenever you have any doubt in gs4)
    IAS 2016 batch.
    "My watch has ended."
  • Ohhh Commonality between four terms ETHICS, MORALS, ATTITUDE and VALUES??,

    Ans.

    * All four are Instruments of Behaviour regulation.

    * presence of Emotions and Belief in all ( structural view)

    * all predisposes us toward actions (functional view)

    * All makes our 'Choices of behaviour' decision a little easy

    Etc etc

    :-)
    Being IAS... 4 U Onlyyy... :-)


    " Woods are lovely dark and deep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    But I have promises to keep..
    And miles to go before I sleep.. before I sleep. " :)

    #HumHongeKamyaabEkDin :)
  • @all, @Yo_Yo_Choti_Singh, @TonyStark

    Guys, what is the difference between integrity and probity....if you can explain with an example...
  • @all, @Yo_Yo_Choti_Singh, @TonyStark

    Guys, what is the difference between integrity and probity....if you can explain with an example...
    Integrity is based on the word 'integrate'. Meaning, you should be honest, and your principles should integrate to society/organization's ethical principles, and your actions should be according to your principles.
    Thus if you do the right thing, even when no one is watching or complaining, you have integrity.

    For example, even after being engaged to someone, you flirt with some other girl,.. it implies, you lack integrity in personal life and relationship.
    Note that: you may lack integrity here even if you are being honest (i.e. truthful, not cheating).

    Example of lack of professional integrity: you do not give your 100% effort to the project. Your personal goal is not aligned to the company's goal. You look for promotion not by contributing more to company but by doing personal work of your boss. Etc.

    Integrity may be of an organization as well. For example, a food chain may claim their motto that people's health is their first priority.
    But if there is no system of regularly investigating the hygiene, or quality of food, will you call them to be having sufficient integrity? Because they don't practice what they say.

    Someone not having honesty will obviously not have integrity as well. But integrity is much deeper and broader, as we saw above.



    Now

    Probity is even more deeper, and only slightly different in context.
    It is made from the word 'probe'. So, you should come clean in the probing eyes of society, organization, conscience etc.
    The focus here is more on evidentiary value of process.

    Take for example, the issue of conflict of interest.
    Suppose your organization does not have any policy requiring prior disclosure of conflict of interest. So, when faced with a situation, you don't make any such disclosure. But you still try your best to take neutral decisions.
    Do you lack integrity? No.
    But the system still lacks probity.


    Personal probity is when you take extra efforts to prove (watch the word root: probe) that you are honest, upright and have integrity.
    For example, there are examples of some IAS officers who have disclosed there personal property on internet. That's a very high standard of probity in public like.

    You may note that UPSC has deliberately used the word "probity in governance" and not " integrity in governance". The functions of public should not only be good, but also seen to be good.

    Hope this solves your doubts. Let me know if any doubt persists.

    (Please tag me whenever you post any doubt on gs4.)
    IAS 2016 batch.
    "My watch has ended."
  • edited October 2015
    @KungfuPanda Returns and others

    Q. You have grown up with X, who has been your best friend since
    childhood. You have shared your joys and sorrows and have been each
    other`s confidante. Both of you are in your final year graduation and
    writing your final exams. In the exam you notice that your friend is
    copying and cheating a lot. What would you do and why?
  • @KungfuPanda Returns and others

    Q. You have grown up with X, who has been your best friend since
    childhood. You have shared your joys and sorrows and have been each
    other`s confidante. Both of you are in your final year graduation and
    writing your final exams. In the exam you notice that your friend is
    copying and cheating a lot. What would you do and why?
    Out of my loyalty towards my friend and the bond I've built, I wouldn't report this matter. But I will definitely tell X that what he/she is doing is unethical and incorrect and he/she needs to stop it. I will make him/her understand that there would be consequences if he/she was caught and he/she needs to be aware of the same.
    “It is not in the stars to hold our destiny but in ourselves.”
  • @Manjula appreciate your reply! My doubt is this: most of us know what is right/wrong/moral/ethical in a broad sense, yet we don't often practice it. Now, the friend knows what he is doing is wrong, yet he does it anyway. why? because he thinks he can get away with it. so should i rat him out? would that teach him any lesson? Would I react differently If he was not my friend? This brings the ends(teleology) versus sense of duty(deontology) dilemma here. Extending this case to another level: would you tolerate your coworker's petty corruption and not report to higher authority if he happens to be your friend? does that show integrity?
    On the other hand, all these actions go against practicality and sounds hollow. What is the middle ground, if there is any?
  • @breakingbad Totally agree about the teleology and deontology dilemma. Nonetheless, I guess I should have mentioned before that if I found my friend not mending his/her ways, I might eventually have to report him. I guess we all are humans so ultimately, it comes down to looking at this from a utilitarian perspective. How many people would be affected if my friend cheats? In the case of the co-worker's petty corruption, if what he does affects a huge populace or the organization, I would want to report that. Integrity is violated in every small act, almost everyday. We can't truly be honest with ourselves or the world. I would always look at where the see-saw tilts(for the greater good) - in the way in which people get affected least through my actions. We can't really have a middle ground, in my view, because you have to make a choice and when you do make one, someone is bound to get hurt or affected.
    “It is not in the stars to hold our destiny but in ourselves.”
  • KungFuPanda: Why don't you take some classes for us here.. Just give these simple and nice illustrations on all the topics mentioned.. We'll be really greatful!!
    @all, @Yo_Yo_Choti_Singh, @TonyStark

    Guys, what is the difference between integrity and probity....if you can explain with an example...
    Integrity is based on the word 'integrate'. Meaning, you should be honest, and your principles should integrate to society/organization's ethical principles, and your actions should be according to your principles.
    Thus if you do the right thing, even when no one is watching or complaining, you have integrity.

    For example, even after being engaged to someone, you flirt with some other girl,.. it implies, you lack integrity in personal life and relationship.
    Note that: you may lack integrity here even if you are being honest (i.e. truthful, not cheating).

    Example of lack of professional integrity: you do not give your 100% effort to the project. Your personal goal is not aligned to the company's goal. You look for promotion not by contributing more to company but by doing personal work of your boss. Etc.

    Integrity may be of an organization as well. For example, a food chain may claim their motto that people's health is their first priority.
    But if there is no system of regularly investigating the hygiene, or quality of food, will you call them to be having sufficient integrity? Because they don't practice what they say.

    Someone not having honesty will obviously not have integrity as well. But integrity is much deeper and broader, as we saw above.



    Now

    Probity is even more deeper, and only slightly different in context.
    It is made from the word 'probe'. So, you should come clean in the probing eyes of society, organization, conscience etc.
    The focus here is more on evidentiary value of process.

    Take for example, the issue of conflict of interest.
    Suppose your organization does not have any policy requiring prior disclosure of conflict of interest. So, when faced with a situation, you don't make any such disclosure. But you still try your best to take neutral decisions.
    Do you lack integrity? No.
    But the system still lacks probity.


    Personal probity is when you take extra efforts to prove (watch the word root: probe) that you are honest, upright and have integrity.
    For example, there are examples of some IAS officers who have disclosed there personal property on internet. That's a very high standard of probity in public like.

    You may note that UPSC has deliberately used the word "probity in governance" and not " integrity in governance". The functions of public should not only be good, but also seen to be good.

    Hope this solves your doubts. Let me know if any doubt persists.

    (Please tag me whenever you post any doubt on gs4.)
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