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Issue Debate #19 Global Governance Reforms : Challenge to the legitimacy of existing Institutions

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Global Governance Institutions do not reflect the reality of 21st Century power dynamics or democratic aspirations. How far do you think delaying global governance reforms poses a challenge to their legitimacy? Discuss with illustrations.



Reading List :-
1. http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/editorial/restructuring-the-unsc-muchneeded-reform/article7550930.ece

2.





Hint : Do not restrict yourself to UNSC, neither here nor in UPSC. Think wider on the terms "Global Governance Institutions. A diagram will be helpful too!"


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Comments

  • global governance institutions were created after the winners of the second world war joined hands in the process of working towards peace and development in the world.
    As we can see in today's world, the power ( military, political , science and tech) has increased many fold BUT there hasn't been much shift in the power outside the boundaries of the world war winners. Although country's like India , Japan and Germany have improved their conditions , but their military and science sectors have not come at par with those of the UNSC members. This also shows the possible partial policies adopted by these institutions.

    Those who are demanding for the expansion and inclusion in the UNSC, have a large workforce and have shown tendency of development in almost all spheres. Their inclusion in the global governance institutions can prove very positive for developing nations and the agenda of equality among nations. Developing belief is a key aspect of a changing era. and this step will definitely lead to develop belief in people. Inferiority complex will get a setback and respect will take its place.

    At the same time, these institutions will have to work for the upliftment and security of the changing world. And sitting together with the nations that are far ahead in GDP and Military advancements, will give a huge responsibility on these nations.
    Many nations in one organization, means differences in opinions. and more vetos than before.
    group divisions may occur within UNSC and may affect future deals and policies..
    There will be a possibility of another global governance institution being created for keeping an upper hand.
    Considering the present zest among some nations including India for the reforms , The present UNSC must consider atleast some demands made by emerging powers in order to show flexibility and understanding.
  • Most of the global governance issues trace their origin to mid twentieth century. Once the bloody world wars finished, an increasingly need was felt to maintain peace and promote development of the world. Keeping in mind the needs of time, multilateral institutions were developed to form global agenda with leading powers of the time providing leadership. To drive market reform GATT was developed, for security issues UNSS was strengthened as part of UN with many other bodies to coordinate international consensus. To help finance needs of developing markets and safeguard nations against financial troubles world bank group and IMF were formed. So, An effort was made to move forward on matters of international importance using multilateral platforms and various treaties & conventions. However, as we entered into 21st century the power structure of the world and its requirements are no longer same. Human society has progressed a lot in terms of technology, science, economic strength etc. Many nations which just emerged from freedom in mid 20th century are staking their claim at world stage such as Japan, South Korea, Brazil, Germany, India , Indonesia etc.
    These institutions though served the need of time to some extent but their lopsided power structure leaves us wanting for more. The agenda of many of such platforms has been hijacked by the power tussel among the leading countries. Cold war converted many of the newly independent nations to subordinate positions just to fulfill the demands of leading powers to have allies.
    I will give few examples across the institutions where they didnt fulfilled their mandate. Such as, global fnancial institutions like World bank and Imf gave loans on conditional terms which were not in favour of the loanee country many times. They forced many of them to open their market to international trade which didnt fared well for their domestic markets. UNSC as an institution failed the needs of time, though it helped resolving disputes using peacekeeping forces in many countries. But, its failure to act left us with fallen states of iraq, libya, syria, afganistan in last one decade. UN framework for climate change also couldnt come out with a enforceable treaty on climate change in absence of any enforcing mehanism to force polluting nations to pay. G8 couldnt avoid a world wide recession or european crisis which emerged from the so called developed world but whose impact was felt by whole world. World today is suffering from terrorism, climate change, internet freedom, food security, poverty and many other issues which demand targeted action.
    Now is the time that, these global governance institutions are reformed to reflect the needs of present times.
    Defining year of life has already begun, as I move toward final date with destiny. Final attempt with UPSC Civils in 2017* (6* Attempts, 3* Mains, 0* PI).
  • edited October 2015
    @rahul_naamtosunahoga

    Nice answers brothers....but

    Bhaishouldn't we include imf reform etc in global governance reforms.......
    @ForumIAS have suggested unsc readings but we may include these institutions too. (My opinion)......if not plz do tell me why not...??
  • edited October 2015
    Most of the global governance issues trace their origin to mid twentieth century. Once the bloody world wars finished, an increasingly need was felt to maintain peace and promote development of the world. Keeping in mind the needs of time, multilateral institutions were developed to form global agenda with leading powers of the time providing leadership. To drive market reform GATT was developed, for security issues UNSS was strengthened as part of UN with many other bodies to coordinate international consensus. To help finance needs of developing markets and safeguard nations against financial troubles world bank group and IMF were formed. So, An effort was made to move forward on matters of international importance using multilateral platforms and various treaties & conventions. However, as we entered into 21st century the power structure of the world and its requirements are no longer same. Human society has progressed a lot in terms of technology, science, economic strength etc. Many nations which just emerged from freedom in mid 20th century are staking their claim at world stage such as Japan, South Korea, Brazil, Germany, India , Indonesia etc.
    These institutions though served the need of time to some extent but their lopsided power structure leaves us wanting for more. The agenda of many of such platforms has been hijacked by the power tussel among the leading countries. Cold war converted many of the newly independent nations to subordinate positions just to fulfill the demands of leading powers to have allies.
    I will give few examples across the institutions where they didnt fulfilled their mandate. Such as, global fnancial institutions like World bank and Imf gave loans on conditional terms which were not in favour of the loanee country many times. They forced many of them to open their market to international trade which didnt fared well for their domestic markets. UNSC as an institution failed the needs of time, though it helped resolving disputes using peacekeeping forces in many countries. But, its failure to act left us with fallen states of iraq, libya, syria, afganistan in last one decade. UN framework for climate change also couldnt come out with a enforceable treaty on climate change in absence of any enforcing mehanism to force polluting nations to pay. G8 couldnt avoid a world wide recession or european crisis which emerged from the so called developed world but whose impact was felt by whole world. World today is suffering from terrorism, climate change, internet freedom, food security, poverty and many other issues which demand targeted action.
    Now is the time that, these global governance institutions are reformed to reflect the needs of present times.
    Bhai I think u have missed this part

    How far do you think global governance reforms poses a challenge to their legitimacy? Discuss with illustrations.

    Eg...unsc should be inclusive and more democratic for peace and tranquility to sustain at a time when crisis likes Syrian,Crimean etc are made ballgames of the superpowers(also Isis is in itself a new manifestation of terrorism having wide coverage and implications...)

    In wake of establishement of aiib and bricks bank its high time that imf reforms should happen.....so as to represent present realities and avoid another economic catastrophy....

    Climate change being an imminent danger to mother earth and all life existing....... In framework for climate change should take diligent and honest initiatives and actions to mitigate cc.
  • @rahul_naamtosunahoga

    Nice answers brothers....but

    Bhaishouldn't we include imf reform etc in global governance reforms.......
    @ForumIAS have suggested unsc readings but we may include these institutions too. (My opinion)......if not plz do tell me why not...??
    +1


    Very good answers , but try to put one two lines on Imf world bank vs brics bank, AIIB

    Some people may also include ICC too.
    *No good deed goes unpunished* | I am no knight, do not call me Sir | I write articles for Civil Services Aspirants, you can find them at http://blog.forumias.com/author/neyawn |
  • @all plz review

    There is an erosion of legitimacy of global governance organisations and regimes.
    The reasons are:
    - The legitimacy of these institutions was based on western hegemony, this has eroded over last decade
    - There is a power shift and rise of BRICS and MIST (Mexico, indonesia, South Korea, Turkey) countries
    - Contemporary challenges require global partnerships. For example, Terrorism and climate change issues cannot be tackled by individual countries and need the cooperation of other countries. Similarly, economic partnership needed wider consensus and therefore, G20 came into being.
    - Further, developing countries are not very comfortable with IMF, WTO and World Bank. In times of global civil society and human rights consciousness, even small countries get a voice.

    Thus, delaying governance reforms is not an option anymore.


  • @all plz review

    There is an erosion of legitimacy of global governance organisations and regimes.
    The reasons are:
    - The legitimacy of these institutions was based on western hegemony, this has eroded over last decade
    - There is a power shift and rise of BRICS and MIST (Mexico, indonesia, South Korea, Turkey) countries
    - Contemporary challenges require global partnerships. For example, Terrorism and climate change issues cannot be tackled by individual countries and need the cooperation of other countries. Similarly, economic partnership needed wider consensus and therefore, G20 came into being.
    - Further, developing countries are not very comfortable with IMF, WTO and World Bank. In times of global civil society and human rights consciousness, even small countries get a voice.

    Thus, delaying governance reforms is not an option anymore.


    @trying_tobawesm

    1) You need to first identify the global governance Institutions.
    2) You need to state why the above statement has been made.
    3) List down issues, in a little more detail as you have done.
    4) Why legitimacy is challenged? - Do not represent 1/5th of population by ignoring India, and no representation for Africa etc.
    IMO
    *No good deed goes unpunished* | I am no knight, do not call me Sir | I write articles for Civil Services Aspirants, you can find them at http://blog.forumias.com/author/neyawn |
  • Global governance: Process of cooperative leadership that brings together national goals, multilateral public agencies and civil society to achieve the commonly accepted goals. Global governance is not a new concept.After ww-2, many global institutions were formed (un,imf,wb,gatt).these were reasonable and practical models of the 20th century. But there has been no change in the democratic structure of these intuitions even with the changing regional and global scenario.
    Political governance:
    UNGA: The problem with the system is “one country ,one vote system”. States with huge population aren’t given adequate representation and the voices of the citizens of those nations are underrepresented.
    Security governance:
    UNSC:(1)no democratic representation in UNSC council:for over seven decades, P5 countries continue to enjoy an unrivaled status and level of influence in the primary UN body for maintenance of international peace and security. Their veto power remains a source of concern as well as a chief reason for the Security Council’s paralysis . (2) poor women participation:peace processes seems to be gender biased where it involves primarily male leaders of contending armed forces and groups and mostly male mediators or facilitators. (3)lack of coordination with civil society organisations: The wars and conflicts we face today are all illustrations a deep-rooted crisis of world governance. Prevention of the causes of conflicts lies primarily with improving people's living conditions—health, accommodation, food, and work and education which is possible only with the active participation of civil society organizations.
    Justice governance:
    ICJ :(1)limited jurisdiction: has mandatory jurisdiction only over UN Member States that accept such jurisdiction, which inhibits its role in maintaining the rule of law internationally as a true “world court”
    ICC: (1) lack of coordination with UNSC: was established to prosecute those most responsible for serious crimes of concern to the international community. But lack of coop with another security agency is limiting its performance
    Economic governance:
    IMF AND WB:(1)representation issue:voting rights is propotional to the capital share of the countries.so this has obviously resulted in majority of the decisions of the intn to reflect the interest of the rich nations.thus the role of poor countries in decion making process seems to be minimum
    WTO: (1)poor decision making model:Here decision making is based on consensus and reaching consensus with 153 countries is nearly impossible.Thus wto has failed in implementing any effective models for the trade development of the developing and under developed countries.
    Environmental governance
    UNEP: (1)no accountability:.with increasing debates over the responsibility of nations in combating the climate change still no proper consensus had been made and many nations have started making voluntaryt intiatives like UK,US,CHINA.it indicates its ineffectiveness in ensuring accountability of nations in their role in climate change
    We have multiple independent organisations specialising in certain fields ,pursuing with their own objectives and priorities.but over time,we have inherited a fragmented system each focusing more on evaluating and improving their own performance rather that working together in achieving the common objectives.
  • i am sorry i have
    gave nly the problems.i din deal with legitimacy part
  • @Neyawn thanks for detailed review

    Global governance reforms: challenge to the legitimacy of existing institutions.

    There is a call for global governance reforms, since they are not seen as legitimate.

    Global governance is carried out through organisations like UN, WTO, IMF and World Bank. Further, there are many regimes and understandings like BASEL convention, Vienna Convention etc.

    Increasingly, the world organisations are seen illegitimate. The reasons are as follows:
    - The power dynamics in these organisations is morally indefensible. Since, we talk of democracy and equality, we cannot have undemocratic international organisations. For example, Latin America and Africa without representation in UNSC etc.,
    - The hegemony of west is eroded. In economic terms the developing countries are averse to neoliberal agenda and they can see the exploitative tendencies inherent in west made institutions
    - Power politics played by US has made nations question US policies and they are increasingly trying to balance it.
    - Western culture of consumerism and individualism is seen as hollow, people are looking at east for inspiration for family values and saving tendencies, thus, a rise in soft power of other cultures.

    Thus, overall western power is not seen as legitimate anymore and thus global institutions run by them are seen illegitimate. Therefore, there are demands of reforming these institutions.

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