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2016 anthro mains discussion

edited December 2016 in Anthropology
Use this thread as a platform to discuss today's anthro paper and also guide the aspirants who will be writing next year.
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Comments

  • First plz post paper guys no where found it
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  • Anthro Paper 1
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    Jaan Tere Naam

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  • Kindly update the 2nd paper
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  • Anthro Paper 1

    Please post paper 2 as well.

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  • Anthro 2016 Paper - II
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  • In Anthro Paper - I; Only two unexpected questions

    1. Geertz symbolic theory and cock-fight in Balinese culture;
    2. Levi-Strauss structural analysis of kinship - binary opposites and exchange figure.

    Both the questions could be left out in choice. Hence, easy paper on expected lines.
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  • In Anthro Paper - II; Only four unexpected questions

    1. Mesolithic findings in Belan Valley; (compulsory)
    2. Negrito-Problem;
    3. Skeletal remains from chalcolithic culture of Punjab;
    4. Impact of industrialization on tribes of Jharkhand; (compulsory)

    Both the above questions 2,3 could be left out in choice. However, above questions 1 and 4 are compulsory and one could attempt some average answer.
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  • In Anthro Paper - II; Only four unexpected questions

    1. Mesolithic findings in Belan Valley; (compulsory)
    2. Negrito-Problem;
    3. Skeletal remains from chalcolithic culture of Punjab;
    4. Impact of industrialization on tribes of Jharkhand; (compulsory)

    Both the above questions 2,3 could be left out in choice. However, above questions 1 and 4 are compulsory and one could attempt some average answer.

    I felt the same after seeing paper...ATB for the results...thank you
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  • Anthro Paper 1

    Thank you
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  • Guys overall anthropology tho scaling mein nahi dalungina
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  • Newbie started optional guide me
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  • where are Anthro. ppl for 2017 mains ? I think there is a need of dedicated group for this optional.
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  • I think problem was questions were more general and sociology oriented ..... found difficulty in writing stuff for 20 markers and 15 markers
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  • What should be the answer of genetic n nongenetic factors of adaptation ?
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  • Genetic factors - Which are already present in your genes.
    For example -
    In hilly areas, Oxygen content is low, due to low atmosphere pressure by almost 40%. So, a situation of hypoxia is created. Therefore children born in such regions have adopted by -
    (a) Growth of bigger lungs than plain dwellers
    (b) Increase in Haemoglobin levels for facilitating transport of oxygen
    (c) Increase in no. of capillaries transporting blood to extreme parts of the body.

    These 3 features develop due to local conditions and a feature called 'genetic plasticity' where genes have these information's already present and show these developments in specific situations.

    Now, non-genetic or cultural features could include
    (a) Using oxygen mask (like mountain climbers do)
    (b) Using hot clothes for cold-weather at high altitude. etc.

    Similarly, you have to write about (a) Hot climate, (b) Cold climate and respective adaptations

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  • dog said:

    Genetic factors - Which are already present in your genes.
    For example -
    In hilly areas, Oxygen content is low, due to low atmosphere pressure by almost 40%. So, a situation of hypoxia is created. Therefore children born in such regions have adopted by -
    (a) Growth of bigger lungs than plain dwellers
    (b) Increase in Haemoglobin levels for facilitating transport of oxygen
    (c) Increase in no. of capillaries transporting blood to extreme parts of the body.

    These 3 features develop due to local conditions and a feature called 'genetic plasticity' where genes have these information's already present and show these developments in specific situations.

    Now, non-genetic or cultural features could include
    (a) Using oxygen mask (like mountain climbers do)
    (b) Using hot clothes for cold-weather at high altitude. etc.

    Similarly, you have to write about (a) Hot climate, (b) Cold climate and respective adaptations

    if u have written like this i am afraid u will not get too much,, u have messed with the concept.. and to add very superficial..

    break it down into 4 categories like this:

    i. genetic
    ii. non genetic (developmental adapatatons, physiological adaptations, cultural factors)..

    physiological and developmental are not genetic .. here only genes are invloved in acclimatization and these responses are not heritable but only transient .. and developmetnal are individual responses so not genetic..
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  • So what are genetic factors. And no need to give commentary on whether I'll get marks or not. Just discuss the question bitch.
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  • for sake of convenience.. i am posting my note.. u can read it.. hope it clears... in optional always write with case studies.. u must mention Quechua study of carlson, cynthia bell Tibetan sherpa study, Grover study of anaerobic athletic etc... and how they have specific features..

    Humans normally respond/adapts to environmental stresses in four ways:
    1. genetic adaptations
    2. developmental adaptations
    3. physiological adaptations (acclimatization)
    4. cultural adaptations

    1st three are biological responses. Last 3 responses occur during lifetime w/o further genetic change are non-genetic change.

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  • 1) GENETIC ADAPTATIONS:
    Natural selection may favor for certain genes because of certain physical environmental conditions and bring discrete genetic changes in allele frequencies of population. It also accounts for permanent phenotypic variations in continuous traits such as size, color etc. that depend on multiple interacting genes. When an environmental stress is constant than individuals with adaptive traits survive and reproduce and pass their genes to the next generations. This is biological evolution through natural selection and leads to genetic changes. Thus, Genetic Adaptations are a permanent change in structure and physiology of an organism due to changes at genetic level.

    However, these genetic changes in response to environmental stresses usually take many generations to become widespread in population.

    Fortunately, humans posses 3 other ways to individuals for adapting more quickly to environmental stresses during their lifetime Of these 2 are biological mechanisms but are non genetic. Though these 2 have underlying genetic factors but they are not themselves genetic as individuals develop them during their lifetime, rather than being born with them.

    2) DEVELOPMENTAL ADAPTATIONS:
    They are produced during growth and development of individual as the environment stress shapes the expression of genes each individual possesses. They bring change in anatomy of an individual. They have limited value for short term environmental change but are more flexible and rapid mechanism than genetic adaptations for improving survival chances.


    3) PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS (acclimatization)
    While genetic and development adaptations are permanent phenotypic variations, physiological adaptations or acclimatization are short term changes in response to a specific environmental stimulus/stress. They are temporary and reversible. They reflect the physiological flexibility of organism. They provides a more rapid mechanism in comparison to genetic and development adjustments to improve survival chances.

    Acclimatizations involve whole genes rather than a single one.



    4) CULTURAL ADAPTATIONS
    It represents behavioral flexibility of organism. It provide a more rapid mechanism in comparison to genetic and development adjustments to improve survival chances.
    Humans are not only influenced by their environment through biological adaptations but may also influence their environment by cultural. These cultural adaptations lessen the likelihood of biological adaptations. Culture can also influence direction of natural selection. Eg: culture of dairying has increased the frequency of milk digesting enzyme. People who have thicker layers of fat insulation under their skin still usually survive better in cold climates, while people who are slender do better in hot ones.

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