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Why disguised unemployment exists in agriculture?

what are the reasons that can be attributed to the existence of disguised unemployment in agriculture in India???
[apart from the fact that industry could not accommodate the surplus labour]
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Comments

  • Firstly as you said, industry not able to absorb the surplus labour. So this is just the economic description of the situation. But as i get it what you are asking is the HOW is it that this surplus labour is absorbed.
    For this one needs to understand the social mechanism in action here.
    Family and kinship play a major role. Because of these any agri enterprise will have several people delending on it.
    slow is smooth n smooth is fast !

    achievement is 10% performance and 90% preparation
    ·
  • 1. Lack of educational opportunities. (RTE and SSA need to be implemented in letter and spirit.)
    2. Lack of vocational opportunities. (Skill India is hoped to address this.)
    3. Not enough jobs. (already mentioned; Make in India, Ease of Doing Business expected to address this.)
    4. Lack of proper agricultural extension services. Their presence would lead to the disguised unemployment turning into gainful employment.
    5. Lack of proper entrepreneurial support to village youth. (Startup India, Standup India, DICCI etc. will address this)
    6. Family ties sometimes prevent migration to towns and cities, which may provide better opportunities.

    Please add anything else that you can think of.
    Prelims: 4*. Mains: 1. Interview: 1. Rank: NA.
    Literature of English Language.
    I'm the original one, and I have a horse, Fritz.
    ·
  • *Fragmentation of land holdings
    *Population explosion
    *Joint family
    ·
  • navin said:

    *Fragmentation of land holdings
    *Population explosion
    *Joint family

    Sociology?
    ·
  • 1. Lack of educational opportunities. (RTE and SSA need to be implemented in letter and spirit.)
    2. Lack of vocational opportunities. (Skill India is hoped to address this.)
    3. Not enough jobs. (already mentioned; Make in India, Ease of Doing Business expected to address this.)
    4. Lack of proper agricultural extension services. Their presence would lead to the disguised unemployment turning into gainful employment.
    5. Lack of proper entrepreneurial support to village youth. (Startup India, Standup India, DICCI etc. will address this)
    6. Family ties sometimes prevent migration to towns and cities, which may provide better opportunities.

    Please add anything else that you can think of.

    Sir, "agri extension services" would include what?
    Food parks?
    ·
  • 1. Lack of educational opportunities. (RTE and SSA need to be implemented in letter and spirit.)
    2. Lack of vocational opportunities. (Skill India is hoped to address this.)
    3. Not enough jobs. (already mentioned; Make in India, Ease of Doing Business expected to address this.)
    4. Lack of proper agricultural extension services. Their presence would lead to the disguised unemployment turning into gainful employment.
    5. Lack of proper entrepreneurial support to village youth. (Startup India, Standup India, DICCI etc. will address this)
    6. Family ties sometimes prevent migration to towns and cities, which may provide better opportunities.

    Please add anything else that you can think of.

    Sir, "agri extension services" would include what?
    Food parks?
    Anything that directly aids agriculture.
    Technology development, research, dissemination of knowledge, farmer training etc.
    All these can absorb surplus labour in the form of clerks, assistants etc.
    Not sure if food parks are considered agri extension or not, they're most probably not considered as such.
    Prelims: 4*. Mains: 1. Interview: 1. Rank: NA.
    Literature of English Language.
    I'm the original one, and I have a horse, Fritz.
    ·
  • @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?
    ·
  • jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    @jal
    1) No productivity increasing activity is totally labour independent, no? Even improved seeds need people to disseminate them in far-flung areas.
    2) That is why I wrote "sometimes". There are unavoidable familial circumstances which may prevent migration. It gives us an extra valid point while not being entirely incorrect. Forgive me, but I was writing like I would write in mains. That is why I placed it in the last position as well.
    3) Yes, there is a scope. IT can be added that unlivable conditions in cities and towns coupled with lack of employment opportunities hinder urban migration. I guess I missed it. :/
    Prelims: 4*. Mains: 1. Interview: 1. Rank: NA.
    Literature of English Language.
    I'm the original one, and I have a horse, Fritz.
    ·
  • jaljal
    edited September 2016

    jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    @jal
    1) No productivity increasing activity is totally labour independent, no? Even improved seeds need people to disseminate them in far-flung areas.
    2) That is why I wrote "sometimes". There are unavoidable familial circumstances which may prevent migration. It gives us an extra valid point while not being entirely incorrect. Forgive me, but I was writing like I would write in mains. That is why I placed it in the last position as well.
    3) Yes, there is a scope. IT can be added that unlivable conditions in cities and towns coupled with lack of employment opportunities hinder urban migration. I guess I missed it. :/
    @DrKingSchultz I will advise as a friend not write such loose arguments...My point was that It gives very wrong impression..My experience shows that if you are getting 5/10 for above points, he may cut marks for being indiscreet..He can cut as high as 2 marks..Further he will be looking for such loose statements all through out the paper only to cut marks...This was told to me by an ex paper checker...He said..be short crisp and discreet.

    2) I said Productivity factor and not productivity activity..for example increasing market will be a productivity factor...Skills are labour dependent productivity factors not the market..i.e If you don't have market, all labour can do is sit.
    ·
  • jal said:

    jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    @jal
    1) No productivity increasing activity is totally labour independent, no? Even improved seeds need people to disseminate them in far-flung areas.
    2) That is why I wrote "sometimes". There are unavoidable familial circumstances which may prevent migration. It gives us an extra valid point while not being entirely incorrect. Forgive me, but I was writing like I would write in mains. That is why I placed it in the last position as well.
    3) Yes, there is a scope. IT can be added that unlivable conditions in cities and towns coupled with lack of employment opportunities hinder urban migration. I guess I missed it. :/
    @DrKingSchultz I will advise as a friend not write such loose arguments...My point was that It gives very wrong impression..My experience shows that if you are getting 5/10 for above points, he may cut marks for being indiscreet..He can cut as high as 2 marks..Further he will be looking for such loose statements all through out the paper only to cut marks...This was told to me by an ex paper checker...He said..be short crisp and discreet.
    Oh okay!
    Thanks for the insight. Duly noted. :)
    Prelims: 4*. Mains: 1. Interview: 1. Rank: NA.
    Literature of English Language.
    I'm the original one, and I have a horse, Fritz.
    ·
  • Joint families indeed can be the cause for disguised employment.
    ·
  • Kisaan said:

    Joint families indeed can be the cause for disguised employment.

    How?..please explain..But current knowledge states that joint family has almost ceased to be an economic unit in terms of production..even if coresidency is followed..different members follow different occupations
    ·
  • jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    On third point, I would like to add something..

    Tendency of industries, especially foot losing industries, to open up in urban areas in search of markets is also preventing them to open in urban areas, thereby relying on urban labor and technology. Apparel sector in India is mostly located in urban sector, which is also a cause of losing competitiveness in export market.
    ·
  • @DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?
    An Ounce of Action Is Worth a Ton of Theory
    ·
  • jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    why do u consider point number (2) wrong?
    When the parents are infirm or disabled or aged,despite circumstances few children do not migrate,rather stay back to help them.
    its true that through migration a person can have a livelihood opportunity,but money can't provide the care needed by parents. so,this deters or hinders migration in many cases.
    ·
  • @DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?

    No, its an under-employment. i.e. when the full potential is not harvested,as per her educational qualification.
    best example- last year hundreds of PhD holders in UP had applied for the post of a peon,which required 5th pass as the qualification. so its an under-employment for those people.
    ·
  • jaljal
    edited October 2016
    jena said:

    jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    why do u consider point number (2) wrong?
    When the parents are infirm or disabled or aged,despite circumstances few children do not migrate,rather stay back to help them.
    its true that through migration a person can have a livelihood opportunity,but money can't provide the care needed by parents. so,this deters or hinders migration in many cases.
    In social sciences, no experience is wrong..It is just that how significant it is?......the phenomena you are explaining is not witnessed in a major way..as far as I have read and experienced. BTW, the care economy in India is mostly run by women in household...Men only intervene when there is a major crisis..The question then boils down to should household women be considered as a labour force so they can be considered unemployed?......That's a debate on women's issue.
    ·
  • jal said:

    jena said:

    jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    why do u consider point number (2) wrong?
    When the parents are infirm or disabled or aged,despite circumstances few children do not migrate,rather stay back to help them.
    its true that through migration a person can have a livelihood opportunity,but money can't provide the care needed by parents. so,this deters or hinders migration in many cases.
    In social sciences, no experience is wrong..It is just that how significant it is?......the phenomena you are explaining is not witnessed in a major way..as far as I have read and experienced. BTW, the care economy in India is mostly run by women in household...Men only intervene when there is a major crisis..The question then boils down to should household women be considered as a labour force so they can be considered unemployed?......That's a debate on women's issue.
    I know my argument is just a minority,but since we have a huge population,this minority when converted to absolute figures,it becomes a huge one. I didn't talk about care economy,i talked about taking care of parents, i.e. physical security and even psychological support.

    Question of unemployment arises,when an individual within the age group of labour force intends to work yet does not find any. So if women want to work for paid labour,still do not het any,then will definitely be considered unemployed.
    ·
  • jena said:

    jal said:

    jena said:

    jal said:

    @DrKingSchultz 1) Do you think that increasing the role of labour independent productivity factors in increasing productivity of agriculture will result in significant reduction on Disguised unemployment?
    2) I do not agree that family ties are hindrance to migration. There is not study pointing to it. In fact, Families encourge migration to increase their social status. What hinders migration is unliveable conditions in urban areas and lack of employment there.
    3) should we look at problem of disguised unemployment only from rural perspective? Is there a scope of bringing urbanisation in discussing the topic?

    why do u consider point number (2) wrong?
    When the parents are infirm or disabled or aged,despite circumstances few children do not migrate,rather stay back to help them.
    its true that through migration a person can have a livelihood opportunity,but money can't provide the care needed by parents. so,this deters or hinders migration in many cases.
    In social sciences, no experience is wrong..It is just that how significant it is?......the phenomena you are explaining is not witnessed in a major way..as far as I have read and experienced. BTW, the care economy in India is mostly run by women in household...Men only intervene when there is a major crisis..The question then boils down to should household women be considered as a labour force so they can be considered unemployed?......That's a debate on women's issue.
    I know my argument is just a minority,but since we have a huge population,this minority when converted to absolute figures,it becomes a huge one. I didn't talk about care economy,i talked about taking care of parents, i.e. physical security and even psychological support.

    Question of unemployment arises,when an individual within the age group of labour force intends to work yet does not find any. So if women want to work for paid labour,still do not het any,then will definitely be considered unemployed.
    You may include...but if i were an examiner...I would consider it as a weak argument....
    ·
  • jena said:

    @DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?

    No, its an under-employment. i.e. when the full potential is not harvested,as per her educational qualification.
    best example- last year hundreds of PhD holders in UP had applied for the post of a peon,which required 5th pass as the qualification. so its an under-employment for those people.
    In this case, a person is benched i.e. not doing any job but drawing a salary. I dont think this is underemployment!
    An Ounce of Action Is Worth a Ton of Theory
    ·
  • jena said:

    @DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?

    No, its an under-employment. i.e. when the full potential is not harvested,as per her educational qualification.
    best example- last year hundreds of PhD holders in UP had applied for the post of a peon,which required 5th pass as the qualification. so its an under-employment for those people.
    In this case, a person is benched i.e. not doing any job but drawing a salary. I dont think this is underemployment!
    the example I stated,should have sufficed. A PhD holder could have become an associate professor, but if here he joins as a peon, he shall be bringing water, tea,snacks etc to his boss. His real potential is to teach college or university students.
    hence he is said to be under-employed.

    ·
  • jena said:

    jena said:

    @DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?

    No, its an under-employment. i.e. when the full potential is not harvested,as per her educational qualification.
    best example- last year hundreds of PhD holders in UP had applied for the post of a peon,which required 5th pass as the qualification. so its an under-employment for those people.
    In this case, a person is benched i.e. not doing any job but drawing a salary. I dont think this is underemployment!
    the example I stated,should have sufficed. A PhD holder could have become an associate professor, but if here he joins as a peon, he shall be bringing water, tea,snacks etc to his boss. His real potential is to teach college or university students.
    hence he is said to be under-employed.

    @jena yes. your example is perfect to demonstrate underemployment. However, if an educated person is "benched" and is still drawing salary, the case is not of underemployment, i believe.
    An Ounce of Action Is Worth a Ton of Theory
    ·
  • jal said:

    Kisaan said:

    Joint families indeed can be the cause for disguised employment.

    How?..please explain..But current knowledge states that joint family has almost ceased to be an economic unit in terms of production..even if coresidency is followed..different members follow different occupations
    Joint family not extinct, just modified from residential to functional (or fissioned family).

    Jointness is for property. Once you give up physical possession it is very difficult to gain back any control over land especially by any laborious legal methods against your own relatives. Therefore status of employment in rural areas is mostly "Farmer+". Thus joint families persist, and so does disguised unemployment.
    Furthermore, people declare themselves as farmers for tax purposes. Recent changes to IT Act have been made to cover the loophole. Even AB-baby is a farmer. Disguised unemployment.
    A Lion doesn't concern himself with the opinions of the sheep.
    ·
  • jena said:

    jena said:

    @ DrKingSchultz

    If a highly educated person is benched in an IT firm, is that a form of disguised unemployment too?

    No, its an under-employment. i.e. when the full potential is not harvested,as per her educational qualification.
    best example- last year hundreds of PhD holders in UP had applied for the post of a peon,which required 5th pass as the qualification. so its an under-employment for those people.
    In this case, a person is benched i.e. not doing any job but drawing a salary. I dont think this is underemployment!
    the example I stated,should have sufficed. A PhD holder could have become an associate professor, but if here he joins as a peon, he shall be bringing water, tea,snacks etc to his boss. His real potential is to teach college or university students.
    hence he is said to be under-employed.

    @ jena yes. your example is perfect to demonstrate underemployment. However, if an educated person is "benched" and is still drawing salary, the case is not of underemployment, i believe.
    Disguised unemployment = marginal productivity of labour is zero.
    Marginal productivity = increase in output if one unit of input is increased.

    IT sector has bench to compensate for attrition, pipeline projects and billability purposes. Increase one more on bench and the output still remains the same. Marginal productivity is zero, thus DU.
    Hence proved.
    A Lion doesn't concern himself with the opinions of the sheep.
    ·
  • jaljal
    edited October 2016

    jal said:

    Kisaan said:

    Joint families indeed can be the cause for disguised employment.

    How?..please explain..But current knowledge states that joint family has almost ceased to be an economic unit in terms of production..even if coresidency is followed..different members follow different occupations
    Joint family not extinct, just modified from residential to functional (or fissioned family).

    Jointness is for property. Once you give up physical possession it is very difficult to gain back any control over land especially by any laborious legal methods against your own relatives. Therefore status of employment in rural areas is mostly "Farmer+". Thus joint families persist, and so does disguised unemployment.
    Furthermore, people declare themselves as farmers for tax purposes. Recent changes to IT Act have been made to cover the loophole. Even AB-baby is a farmer. Disguised unemployment.
    I agree with you @Jaime_Lannister , but my assertion was totally different. It was"joint family has almost ceased to be an economic unit in terms of production"..I never said joint family doesn't perform any other roles.
    ·
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