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Target opsc 2015
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  • Bhubaneswar is often referred to as a "Temple City of India". With Puri and Konark it forms the Swarna Tribhuja ("Golden Triangle"), one of eastern India's most visited destinations.

    Bhubaneswar replaced Cuttack as the capital in 1948, the year after India gained its independence from Britain. The modern city was designed by the German architect Otto Königsberger in 1946. Along with Jamshedpur and Chandigarh, it was one of modern India's first planned cities. Bhubaneswar and Cuttack are often referred to as the 'twin cities of Odisha'. The metropolitan area formed by the two cities had a population of 1.7 million in 2011. Bhubaneswar is categorised as a Tier-2 city.
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  • Most of the older temples in Bhubaneswar were built between 8th and 12th centuries, under Shaiva influence. The Ananta Vasudeva Temple is the only old temple of Vishnu in the city.[6] In 1568, the Karrani dynasty of Afghan origin gained control of the area. During their reign, most of the temples and other structures were destroyed or disfigured.[4]

    In the 16th century, the area came under Mughal control. The Marathas, who succeeded the Mughals in mid-18th century, encouraged pilgrimage in the region. In 1803, the area came under British colonial rule, and was part of the Bengal Presidency (until 1912), Bihar and Orissa Province (1912-1936) and Orissa Province (1936-1947).[4] The capital of the British-ruled Orissa Province was Cuttack, which was vulnerabile to floods and suffered from space constraints. Because of this, on 30 September 1946, a proposal to move the capital to a new capital was introduced in the Legislative Assembly of the Orissa Province. After independence of India, the foundation of the new capital was laid by Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru on 13 April 1948
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  • The name of the new capital came from "Tribhubaneswar" or "Bhubaneswar" (literally "Lord of the Earth"), a name of Shiva, the deity of the Lingaraja temple.[7] The Legislative Assembly of Orissa was shifted from Cuttack to Bhubaneswar in 1949
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  • From 1952 to 1979, it was administered by a Notified Area Council or a nagar panchayat; a municipality was established only on 12 March 1979. By the 1991 census, the population of Bhubaneswar had increased to 411,542. Accordingly, on 14 August 1994, the Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation was established.
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  • The city is bounded by the Daya River to the south and the Kuakhai River to the east;[10] the Chandaka Wildlife Sanctuary and Nandankanan Zoo lie in the western and northern parts of Bhubaneswar, respectively.[8]

    Bhubaneswar is topographically divided into western uplands and eastern lowlands, with hillocks in the western and northern parts.[10] Kanjia lake on the northern outskirts, affords rich biodiversity and is a wetland of national importance
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  • The city is somewhat dumbbell-shaped with most of the growth taking place to the north, northeast and southwest.[19] The north–south axis of the city is widest, at roughly 22.5 kilometres (14.0 mi). Growth in the east is restricted due to the presence of Kuakhai River and by the wildlife sanctuary in the northwestern part.[19] The city can be broadly divided into the old town, planned city (or state capital), added areas and outer peripheral areas. It is subdivided into Units and Colonies.

    The old town or "Temple Town", the oldest part of the city, is characterised by many temples, including the Lingaraj, Rajarani, and Muktesvara temples, standing alongside residential areas. This area is congested, with narrow roads and poor infrastructure.[19] Among neighbourhoods in the old town are Rajarani Colony, Pandav Nagar, Brahmeswar Bagh, Lingaraj Nagar, Gouri Nagar, Bhimatanki and Kapileswar.

    The planned city was designed in 1948 to house the capital. It is subdivided into units, each with a high school, shopping centres, dispensaries and play areas. While most of the units house government employees, Unit V houses the administrative buildings, including the State Secretariat, State Assembly, and the Raj Bhavan. Private residential areas were later built in other areas of the planned city, including Saheed Nagar and Satya Nagar. Unit I, popularly known as the Market Building, was formed to cater to the shopping needs of the new capital's residents. Later, markets and commercial establishments developed along the Janpath and Cuttack-Puri Road at Saheed Nagar, Satya Nagar, Bapuji Nagar and Ashok Nagar. A dedicated institutional area houses educational and research institutes, including Utkal University, the Institute of Physics, the Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology and Sainik School. Indira Gandhi Park, Gandhi Park and the Biju Patnaik Park are located in the unit.[19]
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  • The added areas are mostly areas lying north of National Highway 5, including Nayapalli, Jayadev Vihar, Chandrasekharpur and Sailashree Vihar, which were developed by Bhubaneswar Development Authority to house the growing population.[19]

    The peripheral areas are outside the municipal boundary or have subsequently been included within the extended boundary, including Tomando, Patia and Raghunathpur. Most of these areas were developed in a haphazard manner, without proper planning
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  • Bhubaneswar has a tropical savanna climate, designated Aw under the Köppen climate classification
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  • Bhubaneswar was ranked as the best place to do business in India by the World Bank in 2014
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  • In 2012, Bhubaneswar was ranked third among Indian cities, in starting and operating a business by the World Bank
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  • As per the 2011 census of India, Bhubaneswar had a population of 837,737, while the metropolitan area had a population of 881,988.[1][45] As per the estimate of IIT Kharagpur, which made a development plan, the Bhubaneswar-Cuttack Urban complex, consisting of 721.9 square kilometres (278.7 sq mi), has a population of 1.9 million (as of 2008).[46] As of 2011, the number of males was 445,233, while the number of females were 392,504. The decadal growth rate was 45.90 per cent. Effective male literacy was 95.69 per cent, while female literacy was 90.26 per cent. About 75,237 were under six. Bhubaneswar's literacy rate is 93.15 per cent[1]—significantly higher than the national average of 74.04 per cent
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  • Odisha Right to Public Service Act 2012---

    The Odisha Right to Public Services Act, 2012 in Odisha is an exemplary initiative by the State Government to check corruption in public service delivery. The law enables the citizens to demand public services as a right and also includes a provision for penal action against officials failing to provide the services within the stipulated time..
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  • nitially there were 34 services introduced to this Act with 7 Departments. Notification of these 34 services was done in the month of January 2013. Another 22 services with addition of Home Department added to this Act in the month of March 2013. The 1st 34 services have been implemented on 01.01.2013 and 2nd 22 services have been implemented on 30.03.2013. Now 10 Administrative Department providing 63 services. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools have been utilised to make the process of implementation and monitoring streamlined, corruption-free, centralized and less labour intensive. Primary components of this ICT system are - service delivery and monitoring software; mechanisms for tracking applications. Many parts of the programme are still in the development stage and some enhancements are in planning. The ORTPSA has cut down the need to make multiple rounds to Government offices, bribe officials, or face harassment in terms of loss of their files and such like. An Exclusive Project Monitoring Unit (PMU) having Techno managerial skills has been created to provide continuous support to the beneficiaries.
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  • Capacity building Training programmes at State level/ District level/Sub Divisional level/PRI level is being conducted by PAN Odisha. Well experienced and highly qualified Master Trainers are appointed to impart training in all levels.

    Followings are the Training details under ORTPSA;
    For advertisement, sunboards/hoardings/newsletter are being displayed and distributed across Odisha. Apart from this, visit to different tahsils/blocks are also being made and a detail report pertaining to major findings is submitted in this regard.
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    The unique aspect of the ORTPS is the extensive employment of ICT tools to assist and monitor the implementation of the programme. Various provisions of the Act have been effectively woven with technological innovations with the aim to (a) modernise administrative processes, (b) reduce manual work, and (c) ensuring transparency and accuracy in public service delivery by giving citizens the means to track their application at every stage.
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  • edited July 2016

    Application for services under ORTPS-

    1) For delivery of each service notified, there shall be a Designated Officer to whom the citizen can make an application. The Designated Officer will provide the said service in a time bound manner.
    2) In case a citizen is unable to get the said services within the prescribed time limit, he/she may file an appeal before an Appellate Authority. The Appellate Authority will consider the case and pass necessary order.
    3) Any citizen aggrieved with the order of the Appellate Authority or in case of delay in providing the service within the prescribed time limit, may file a revision petition before the Revisional Authority. If the Revisional Authority found that the Designated Officer has failed to provide the service without sufficient and reasonable cause, he may impose a penalty against the Designated Officer not exceeding Rs.5000/-.
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  • State Agri Policy 2013-

    Odisha is an Agrarian State. Almost 70 per cent population of the State is dependent on agriculture. The agriculture sector contributes only about 16 per cent of the Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP), with more than 70% population dependence resulting in low per capita income in the farm sector. Consequently, there is a large disparity between the per capita income in the farm sector and the nonfarm sector. Therefore, it is essential to deal with those issues which impact the income level of farmers.

    Considering the high growth of GDP in the recent past, a major reorientation in the policy is necessary to make this growth more inclusive. The decline in agriculture growth coupled with declining profitability in the agriculture sector, in the face of rapid growth of non-farm sector, is one of the major concerns. The National Policy for Farmers, 2007 has envisaged focusing more on the economic wellbeing of the farmers, rather than just on production.

    More public investment in agriculture is the present requirement as private investment in agriculture would take time because of the slow evolution of appropriate policies. Investment can spur up the productivity and capital formation which is so very crucial to the agriculture sector. Considering that nearly 70 per cent of India still lives in villages, agricultural growth will continue to be the engine of broad-based economic growth and development as well as of natural resources conservation, leave alone food security and poverty alleviation. Accelerated investment is needed to facilitate agricultural development. This would lead agriculture sector on a better path and resurrecting its importance across the sectors will go a long way in making farming a respectable profession. There have been many significant changes in the recent times in the realm of agriculture development, more so in the post-WTO regime. Therefore, it is essential to take note of the changing situation and bring out a policy to meet the present challenges in the sector.
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  • edited July 2016
    State Agri Policy 2013-

    Agriculture in Odisha still depends on the small and marginal farmers. It continues to be characterized by low productivity due to traditional agricultural practices, inadequate capital formation and low investment, inadequate irrigation facilities, low water use efficiency, uneconomic size of holding, etc.

    The agricultural development plan in today’s context has to be holistic, well-defined and focused towards overall well-being of the farming community. With this backdrop, the Agriculture Policy is designed to be futuristic, flexible enough to anticipate and address emerging trends, identify potential areas for development and chalk out a clear agenda for agricultural development.

    The main objectives of this Policy are as follows:
    1)To bring in a shift from the present level of subsistence agriculture to a profitable commercial agriculture; 2)To promote sustainable agricultural development; 3)To enhance productivity of important crops by enhancing seed replacement, availability of quality planting materials, INM, IPM, water management, farm mechanization and technology transfer; 4)To encourage crop substitution particularly in uplands and medium lands; 5)To focus on horticultural crops including dry-land horticulture;6) To focus on poultry, dairy and fisheries to augment the income of the farmers; 7)To encourage modern farming system approach;
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  • 8)To encourage organic farming; 9)To enhance water use efficiency through peoples’ participation; 10)To facilitate increased long term investment in agricultural sectors (on farm as well as off farm) both by private sector, public sector and private & public partnership (PPP), particularly for post harvest management, marketing, agro processing and value addition, etc;11) To encourage contract as well as compact farming;12) To increase access to credit for small and marginal farmers; 13)To facilitate appropriate market linkages for agricultural produce with respect to which the State has competitive advantages; 14)To improve the marketing facilities and access to market information; 15)To implement integrated watershed development programs in watershed areas for Natural Resource Management (NRM), increased crop production as well as on-farm and non-farm income; 16)To create appropriate institutions / facilities to undertake regulatory, enforcement and quality assurance activities matching to the emergent needs. 17)To redefine the roles and responsibilities of the agricultural extension machinery by suitably restructuring the field extension set up.
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    (i) Seeds
    Seed is one of the most important inputs that play a key role in boosting agricultural productivity. Keeping other inputs of production constant, the quality seeds alone can increase the production to the extent of nearly 20%.

    According to many agricultural scientists, one of the main reasons for the low productivity of many food crops in Odisha is the poor Seed Replacement Rate (SRR). The SRR refers to the percentage of area of crop in which quality seeds are used in a given crop season.

    The SRR as per Govt. of India stipulation is as follows. 1. In self pollinated crops - 33% 2. In cross pollinated crops - 50% 3. In hybrids – 100%
    The SRR in paddy, the most important crop of Odisha is of 22%
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  • (ii) Irrigation
    Irrigation plays a significant role in increasing the yield from the land. Non-availability of timely and adequate water for irrigation is now becoming a serious constraint in achieving higher productivity and stability of farming. Therefore, assured irrigation is the need of the hour. Though, the total rainfall in our State is satisfactory, its distribution over time and space is highly uneven. So, rain water harvesting and improving the efficiency of water use are important. It has been assessed that even 10% increase in the present level of water use efficiency in irrigation projects may help to provide life saving irrigation to crops in large areas. The concept of maximizing yield and income per unit of water would be used in all crop production programs. Water Users’ Associations are being encouraged to maximize the benefit from the available water.
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  • (iii) Fertilizers
    To increase agricultural production, it is necessary that chemical fertilizers as well as organic manure are used adequately and in a balanced manner. Presently, fertilizer consumption in the State is 63 kg/ha only as compared to the national average of more than 140 kg/ha.
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  • (iii)Fertilizers
    While suitable measures will be taken to increase fertilizer consumption in the State, emphasis would be laid on ‘balanced fertilization’. Balanced fertilization is defined as an accurate fertilizer application equal to the plant need considering the soil nutrient content. To achieve balanced nutrition for sustainable crop production, Integrated Nutrient Management (INM) is very important. The goal of INM is to integrate the use of all natural and man-made sources of plant nutrients required for high agricultural productivity besides ensuring the sound health of soil. State will endeavour to promote INM practices in a big way through suitable programs and incentives. Prolonged and over usage of chemical fertilizers on soil results in soil health deterioration, human health hazards and pollution of the environment. Hence, it is necessary to switch over to an alternate source of nutrient supply to the crops which is ecologically protective of farming. The State will promote use of biofertilizers in a big way through suitable incentives and effective extension. The State will take steps place the necessary infrastructure to enable direct transfer of fertilizer subsidy to the farmers. The State will also take steps, using IT, to monitor the sale of fertilizers to ensure that it is not diverted for illegal purposes. Farmers will be able to learn about the stock position of the dealers in a transparent way.
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  • (iv) Plant Protection
    Integrated Pest Management (IPM) concept will be promoted. State level experts will recommend pesticides and bio pesticides for subsidized sale under different schemes. Seed Treatment will be promoted in a big way. ATMA like agencies and other schemes like RKVY will take up such programs. Pest surveillance will be streamlined. Pest monitoring devises will be promoted.

    (v) Farm Mechanization
    Farm Mechanization brings a significant improvement in agricultural productivity in a number of ways. The timeliness of various agricultural operations is crucial in obtaining optimal yield, which is possible only through mechanization. Secondly, the quality and precision of the operations are equally significant for realizing higher yield. The various operations such as land leveling, irrigation, sowing and planting, use of fertilizer, plant protection, harvesting and threshing need a high degree of precision to increase the efficiency of the inputs as well as to reduce the losses. Farm Mechanization also goes a long way in reducing the drudgery of agricultural operations. With mechanization, there are good chances to reduce the cost of production resulting in higher margin of profit. In our State, level of mechanization is very low. Farm Mechanization will be promoted in a large scale, by ensuring easy availability of appropriate farm machineries at substantially subsidized rates. Pattern of assistance on farm machineries, implements and equipments is given in (Annexure-I). Farm machinery suitable for different types of soil and operation for important crops will be developed. A State level Training and Testing Centre of Farm Machineries approved by the Govt. of India and registered under NCVT is being established, which will supplement the workings of the Odisha Farm Machinery Research and Development Centre (OFMRDC). Technical know-how will be provided to the farmers about appropriate farm machineries suitable for their situation. Training relating to farm machineries and equipment shall be imparted to the farmers, mechanics and artisans. Women-friendly farm equipments will be promoted.
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  • Integrated Pest Management (IPM) and use of bio-control agents will be encouraged in order to minimize the indiscriminate and injudicious use of chemical pesticides. Subsidy will be provided for plant protection equipments. Agro Service Centers will be promoted in all the Blocks / fully irrigated GPs to provide door-step services for farm mechanization.
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  • From Orissa to Odisha and From Oriya to Odia-
    The Naveen Patnaik's Government pragmatically approached the issue and an all-party meeting was convened to discuss regarding the change of the name of the State. It was unanimously decided to change the name of the state from Orissa to Odisha and its language from Oriya to Odia. After a prolonged deliberation in the Orissa Legislative Assembly, a unanimous resolution to this effect was passed in the year 2008 which later received the nod of both the houses of the Parliament in 2010. On 24th March, 2011, Rajya Sabha passed the Bill to change the name of our State from Orissa to Odisha amending the Constitution to rename our language as Odia. On 1st of November, 2011, the Government of India came out with the Gazette Notification on the passing of the Orissa (Alteration of name) Bill, 2010 and the Constitution mentioned that the change of names came into effect from the 1st of November 2011
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  • edited July 2016

    (i) Northern Tropical Semi-evergreen Forests : These occur in the lower hills and valleys above 600 m elevation in the forest divisions of Mayurbhanj, Dhenkanal, Athgarh, Puri, Nayagarh, Parlakhemidi, Koraput and Kalahandi. While the top storey trees are deciduous and remain leafless for a short time, the second storey is evergreen.

    (ii) Tropical Moist Deciduous Forests also known as Monsoon Forests : These occur in the lower elevations in Mayurbhanj and Keonjhar districts and the districts bordering on Madhya Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh.

    (iii) Tropical Dry Deciduous Forests : They occur in the drier central and western areas in parts of Balangir, Kalahandi, Sambalpur, Khariar, Deogarh and Gobindpur divisions.

    (iv) Tidal Mangrove Forests: These are limited in extent, scattered and confined to the seacoast, especially in Bhitar Kanika (Balasore) and the Mahanadi delta. As Hental (Phoenix paludosa) grows here abundantly in clusters, the mangrove forests are locally called ‘Hental van’ or Hental forests.
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    In 1967 a wild tigress of the jungle named Kanan managed to creep into the zoo at Nandankanan, climb up a concrete wall and leap into its tiger enclosure as if to opt for a membership by way of choosing a mate. In the seventies another female tiger named Khairi made history by leading a domestic life as a tiger-daughter in the home of a forest official in Similipal. Such romantic instances are there in wildlife. A natural habitat is improvised for the species in the Project Tiger, Similipal, which was launched as a part of the national programme in 1973 with only 17 inmates to start with; today their number stands at 101 wildlife census 2005. The Project Tiger covers an area of 850 sq. km in the heart of the 2750 sq. km wide Similipal Reserve Forest. The Odishan tiger belongs to the race of panther (Panthera tigris — Odia, Badabagha), the other reported species like leopard (last reported in 1960 from Dhenkanal) and cheetah are by now extinct. The Nandankanan Biological Park is famous for its white tigers.
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  • Local names of some animals-

    The common wolf (heta),
    sloth bear (bhalu),
    honey badger or ratel (gada bhalu),
    hyaena (gadhia or nekeda bagha),
    jackal, wild dog (balia kukura),
    leopard cat (baghata),
    jungle cat (bana bilei),
    civet cat (katasha),
    otter, teddy cat (saliapatini)
    the common mongoose (hatia neula).
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  • edited July 2016
    Local names of some animals-

    the wild bear (barha),
    spotted deer (chital),
    sambar, the barking deer (kutra),
    the black faced langur or Hanuman monkey, the pink-faced bandar (patimankada),
    the tailed hare and pangolin (bajra kapta),
    porcupine (jhinka),
    wild buffaloes (arana mainshi)
    the black buck (krushnasara or baliharina)
    The Irrawadi dolphin (bhuasuni machha) and the gangetic dolphin (sisumara)
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