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Public administration previous years question paper solutions.

We can contribute and practice by writing answers for previous years questions. It will help in understanding the deep syllabus and overall preparation. I will try to write as many answers as possible and request others to contribute. Experienced players like @doodlebean @mango_dolly and others are requested to please review and give inputs wherever required.
The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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Comments

  • edited September 2015
    Q. What are the implications of the post structuralist perspective on the discrete aspects of public administration, coming from its epistemological position ?
    Ans. Post structuralist objects the structuralist idea that in principle the world is completely comprehensible through analysis of system and structure. According to structuralist underlying all phenomena are deep structure that shape phenomena. And to understand this phenomena it is necessary to understand these structures.
    Structuralist breaks the situation in different parts like public administration, economics, social etc. And according to them these structures have their own grammar(logic) which is different from others.
    Post structuralist do not believe in different grammar for different structures. They want to understand the situation ‘as it is’. Post structuralism brought concepts line unknowingness, human aspect,luck etc in different disciplines. But the effect of post structuralism in public administration is very small.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. “Adaptive, problem-solving, temporary systems of diverse specialists, linked together by coordinating executives in an organic flux-this is original form that will gradually replace bureaucracy”. Discuss, in the light of this statement, the ‘end of bureaucracy’ thesis and its strengths and limitations.
    Ans. Every generation has its unique problems and to deal with those problems they have their unique system of administration. Today everything is changing in a fast pace. With development of technology and globalization traditional bureaucracy has become less efficient and lost its charm. Many new models have been suggested to overcome the lacunae in bureaucracy.
    a. Warren Bennis organic-adaptive model.
    b. Alvin Toffler Adhocracy model.
    c. Rensis Likert system IV.
    d. Matrix organisation.
    In present dynamic system following characteristics are required:-
    a. Its must be adaptive with fast changing scenario. In today’s world technology is changing very fast and and to cope up with the change an adaptive system is required.
    b. Now the problems are becoming more specific and to solve them dedicated problem solving approach is required.
    c. The problems are becoming more technical and to overcome them specialist is required.
    d. System must have diverse personnel who are specialist in different fields. These specialist must work in a coordinated manner according to problem.
    Such organic model will replace bureaucracy as such organisation is more problem oriented and specialist in nature. Decision making in such organization will be more efficient as power is not concentrated in few hands but the any person with required knowledge can influence the result to attain goal.
    But there are few limitations also:-
    a. In routine job bureaucratic model is still more efficient.
    b. Coordination in organic model is difficult to achieve.
    c. People are so use to of bureaucratic model that there is always some reluctance in adapting organic adaptive model.
    With fast changing environment and empowerment of every employee there is a need for more organic model in many fields.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
    ·
  • Q. “Karl Marx’s interpretation of bureaucracy was rooted in the history of the nature of the State”. Evaluate.
    Ans. Karl Marx came before Weber bad criticised bureaucracy. At that time bureaucracy has different meaning and was much different from the Weberian legal rational model. Marx criticised bureaucracy first time in 1843. At that time:-
    a. Democracy was not developed.
    b. State was militaristic and coercive in nature.
    c. Society was divided in classes. Marx named them as Haves and Have Nots.
    d. Ignorance about human rights
    e. Limited welfare oriented role of state.
    According to Marx capitalist society is divided into haves and have-nots. The haves or elite have all the power. Prince, bureaucrats and other rich people belong to this class. And:-
    a. Bureaucracy is an instrument in the hands of elite to maintain status quo.
    b. They don’t have universal approach as pointed by Hagel but are particularstic in nature.
    c. They are career oriented and have personal goals.
    d. Bureaucracy is exploitative in nature.
    It is very clear that such interpretation is based on the conditions prevalent in that time and what Marx observed from history.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. “The conceptual division between administrative and constitutional law is quite porous, and that along many dimensions, administrative law can be considered more constitutional in character that the constitutions.” How would you justify the statement?
    Ans. Constitutional law are the laws which define the organs of state, their relationship each other and people. On the other hand Administrative Law are the laws defining the power of administration its limitation and the manner in which it is operationalized.
    But these definitions are not water tight compartments as there are many exceptions:-
    Constitutional Laws working as administrative laws:- Indian constitution is biggest written constitution and many things are written in so much details that sometimes it includes many administrative laws. Eg. Articles related to inter-state water dispute, inter-state council, linguistic commission etc are administrative in nature.
    Constitutional laws misused and against the ethos of constitution:- There are many laws which are constitutional in nature but are misused eg. Discretionary powers of governor under article 163, President rule under article 356 etc.
    On the other hand all the administrative laws are drafted in such a manner that they are according to the ethos of the constitution. They help in achieving the vision of our Indian constitution.
    Eg. Any administrative law like laws for regulation of electricity or water can be considered. No discrimination is made on the basis of religion, race, caste, sex, etc. Different slabs are available according to consumption. And if rules are broken then everyone is treated equally before law and is punished.
    So the difference between Administrative law and constitutional law is more in technical nature and is useful for academic purpose. In principle both are according to the ethos of constitution
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. Is Peter Drucker justified in saying, “Management principles should not tell us what to do, but only tell us what not to do”? Comment.
    Ans. In classical theories many writers tried to give principles of management and administration; but later it was realised that these principles are not universal. Principles strictly speaking are the statements which are universally applicable.
    Peter Drucker is considered as father of modern management. According to him Management should not tell us what to do, as:-
    a. He considered management as an art having blend of many disciplines.
    b. Today environment is dynamic and every situation is new in itself.
    c. No rule can be implemented universally.
    d. Fixed rules can kill innovativeness.
    e. When rules are fixed then more importance is given to them than the result.
    Drucker himself was much experimental in nature and had predicted many events of future based on his knowledge, experience and innovativeness.
    He also considers that Management should tell us what not to do; so that:-
    a. A manager can learn from past mistakes.
    b. Past mistakes are not repeated.
    c. Past mistakes can guide in new environment.
    So Drucker is justified in saying that Management principles should not tell us what to do, but only tell us what not to do.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. “Governance theory and the notion of governmentality have many points of convergence, but they run on parallel lines.” Comment.
    Ans. Governance:- Governance redefines relation of government and society. It is a networked approach in which different actors come together to solve problems. With increasing complexity new problems have developed and government cannot solve them lonely. So governance is the process in which government, civil society, corporate etc all come together to achieve the goal.
    Governmentality:- Governmentality is the way government try to produce the citizen best suited to fulfil government policies. In governmentality, government inculcates different values which it feels are essential to achieve goal.
    Eg. Female infanticide is a big problem in India. If government, doctors, police, civil society etc come together to check such practice then it is governance. But if values of equality and respect for female is inculcated in people so that they start acting in the desired way then it is governmentality.
    Both governance and governmentality have many points of convergence like problem of regulating, governing, conducting etc. But both run on parallel lines as approach of both to solve the problem are different. Governance is more of external in nature while governmentality is an internal agent of change.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. “ Taylor ideas need modification in the context of post industrial economies in contemporary era.” Justify with reasons.
    Ans. Public administration is a very dynamic discipline. There are no fixed theories. Every theory need modification according to the situation of that time.
    Taylor propagated his scientific management theory when:-
    a. The condition of labours was very poor.
    b. Most managers were untrained and ignore their responsibilities.
    c. Rule of thumb was used.
    d. High friction between managers and labours
    e. No standardization
    But in contemporary era environmental conditions have changed.
    a. Rapid change in technology.
    b. Increased competition.
    c. Changing nature of consumers.
    d. Constant pressure by organisation unions and governmental agencies.
    e. Needs and opportunities of employees are changing.
    f. Change in management values.
    So in such a changed scenario Taylor ideas need modification. These changes can be seen in the form of flatter organisation, more importance to human resource, more autonomy and responsibility to each employee, new ways of motivating employees etc. But Taylor is still relevant. The core of his theory i.e. scientific temperament and harmony between management and employee is always relevant.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. How does the Strategic Contingencies Theory of organizational design deal with problems arising from sub-unit centrality and non-substitutability?
    Ans. Strategic Contingencies Theory focuses on tasks that need to be done in the form of problems to be solved, thus de-emphasizing personality. If a person does not have charisma but is able to solve problem, then s/he can be an effective leader.
    The leader is in demand as only he can solve the problem and deal with future uncertainties. Every sub unit has knowledge of itself and have no knowledge of other sub units. That’s why they depend on central or leader for information.
    When there is no other alternative to replace leader i.e. if he is non-substitutable then the solution provided by him has to be accepted.
    To deal with the problem of centrality and non-substitutability an organisation need:-
    a. Better flow of information.
    b. Better structuring of sub-units so that they are less dependent on centre.
    c. Knowledge sharing between different sub-units.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Gud wrk.and nice initiative.I will also take part in this.
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  • Good Initiative.
    @firststep Can you explain what is Warren Bannis Organic Adaptive Model?
    In that question you can also criticize the post-structuralist models Like matrix,project, etc by raising the positive of having proper rules as happens in Weber's Bureacracy. Proper rules would ensures predictability, accountability , also future references purposes which may not be the case in temporary organisations.
    ·
  • edited September 2015
    @firststep In constituional and administrative law questions, can you please explain how Administrative law is more constitutional that the constitution itself which is one of the demand of the question?
    ·
  • Good Initiative.
    @firststep Can you explain what is Warren Bannis Organic Adaptive Model?
    In that question you can also criticize the post-structuralist models Like matrix,project, etc by raising the positive of having proper rules as happens in Weber's Bureacracy. Proper rules would ensures predictability, accountability , also future references purposes which may not be the case in temporary organisations.
    Dont have very good understanding but organic adaptive model is like....... there is no fix structure or hierarchy, People are hire according to the dynamic need. People with different qualities are hired and they are trained accordingly unlike in classical structure where all employees are hired by similar exam and trained under same training program. Now these employees leads the organization according to the situation and not according to hierarchy.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
    ·
  • @firststep In constituional and administrative law questions, can you please explain how Administrative law is more constitutional that the constitution itself which is one of the demand of the question?
    There are few constitutional laws which are functionally against constitutional ethos. At the same time many administrative laws that works in strengthening constitutional ethos and helps in bringing constitutionalism.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
    ·
  • Q. According to Mcgregor, “true professional help is not in playing God with the client, but in placing professional knowledge and skills at the client’s disposal.” In the light of above statement, justify how theory-Y is indicative and not prescriptive.
    Ans. McGregor considers traditional or classical theories as theory X and presented his theory Y as a response to theory X. He classified theories on the basis of variables like direction and control.
    Theory X assumes that:-
    a. Average human being avoids responsibilities.
    b. He can only be controlled by fear.
    c. He always needs others help for direction.
    The effect of these assumptions can be seen in professional-client relationship. Professional having above assumption try to behave like God. In Indian health sector most of the doctors do not explain the symptoms, causes, side-effects etc to patients. They only prescribe medicines and tell that only this is the right way to take medicine.
    On the other hand theory Y assumes:-
    a. Under proper circumstances average human being take responsibilities.
    b. He can be self-controlled and self directed.
    The effect of these assumptions can also be seen in Indian health sector. Earlier it was impossible to eradicate diseases like polio, tuberculosis etc. But only with the spread of full information about diseases it became possible to curb them. Now people are empowered and can take decisions that when they should visit doctor.
    With the changing scenario where consumers/clients are educated and well aware of their rights and when their choices are changing with time, theory Y is more successful model for professional-client relationship.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
    ·
  • Good Initiative.
    @firststep Can you explain what is Warren Bannis Organic Adaptive Model?
    In that question you can also criticize the post-structuralist models Like matrix,project, etc by raising the positive of having proper rules as happens in Weber's Bureacracy. Proper rules would ensures predictability, accountability , also future references purposes which may not be the case in temporary organisations.


    Dont have very good understanding but organic adaptive model is like....... there is no fix structure or hierarchy, People are hire according to the dynamic need. People with different qualities are hired and they are trained accordingly unlike in classical structure where all employees are hired by similar exam and trained under same training program. Now these employees leads the organization according to the situation and not according to hierarchy.
    Ok. that happens in others too like Matrix, Project organisations,Adhocacy model. So,anything unique about Organic Adaptive Model?
    ·
  • Q. The notion of informal organisation is a residual or cafeteria concept of diverse and sprawling contents. How does Gouldner established the need for understanding the interdigitations between the formal and informal organisation?
    Ans. In classical theories idea of informal organization was either not included or rejected. But in later theories many thinkers like Barnard, Simon, Gouldner etc wrote on informal organization/group.
    Different characteristics of informal organizations are:-
    a. They are structureless.
    b. They help in communication.
    c. They protect employees from authoritarianism
    d. They provide bargaining power to employees.
    e. They help in motivating people.
    f. They threat employees in case they don’t follow orders without any valid reason.
    There are many more features.
    Features related to formal organization like structure, power, control, planning, accounting etc are given more importance. On the other hand features related to informal organization requires study of interdisciplinary approach like psychology, anthropology, behavioural science, etc and most of them are not empirically tested and are used whenever required. As there is absence of holistic study on informal organization these features are treated as residual and used according to cafeteria approach.
    Gouldner wrote about the need and relation between formal and informal organization in his natural system model. According to him consent between formal and informal organization is most important. To come to some consensus on ends and means both formal and informal organizations do bargaining.
    Gouldner emphasised the importance of understanding interdigitations between formal and informal organization because both are important for existence of each other.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
    ·
  • Q. The right to information is not all about citizens’ empowerment; it essentially redefines the concept of accountability.
    Ans. RTI act has brought a paradigm shift in field of administration. Earlier the citizens who were treated as subject and were living under era of opaqueness are now empowered to take informative decisions.
    Empowerment can be measured in terms of : willingness, ability and instrumentality.
    • Now citizens are well aware of their rights. Government and civil society has played a major role in spreading awareness. This awareness has awoken the citizen to fight for their rights.
    • Under RTI act government has made procedure so simple that it can enable the poor and illiterate also to file RTI and get relevant information.
    • This RTI act, acts like an instrument to fight against human rights violation, corruption, nepotism, favouritism etc.
    RTI act has not only empowered but also redefined the concept of accountability. Usually accountability is defined in terms of answerability and enforcement.
    Answerability:- Earlier administration i.e. executive were responsible to parliament but now the situation has changed. Now every act is scrutinised by common people and the real stakeholders.
    Eg. RTI act has helped in bringing many scams and cases of corruption in front of people. Today even the smallest sum of funds spent by administration in under the scanner of common people.
    Enforcement :- RTI act has clearly defined the time period under which information is to be provided and in case of non fulfilment the procedure of grievance redressal and punishment to the PIO. This has helped in proper enforcement of RTI
    RTI act has strengthened democracy as earlier administration was responsible to people via parliament but now it is directly responsible and accountable towards people.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. New public management and post new public management reforms initiatives ever affected the balance between managerial, political, administrative, legal, professional and social accountability. Analyse
    Ans. In 1990’s many new reforms took place like NPM, Public Choice Approach, Good Governance, Citizen charter, RTI etc. These reforms have affected the balance of accountability. This balance can be analysed by asking accountability to whom and accountability for what.
    Managerial accountability:- NPM and other changes have increased managerial accountability. Managers are accountable towards their organizational goals. Now they provide service on contract basis, and if they are unable to provide output then there services can be terminated.
    Political accountability:- In this new era relationship between politicians and citizens have changed. Now NPM and PCT have increased their accountability towards clients and decreased towards poorer section of society on the other hand GG has increased their responsibility towards poorer section also.
    Legal accountability:- With introduction of citizen charter, RTI and other instruments legal accountability has increased.
    Professional accountability:- With increasing specialization and increasing choices and alternatives, professional accountability has increased.
    Social and moral accountability:- Many thinkers believe that in this new era social and moral accountability has highly decreased. With increasing consumerism and client based approach, organizations have lost sense of social and ethical responsibility. Cases of economic fraud, climate change, inequality etc strengthen the argument. Initiatives like citizens’ charter, corporate social responsibility have also become managerial tools.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • @firststep..Any specific source you are following?Answers are very good.btw whats ur score ?
    SII
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  • Q. Delegation to independent agencies has taken place in an interdependent progress driven by emulation. Discuss in the context of independent regulatory agencies in the modern regulatory state.
    Ans. In modern state, services and processes are becoming more complex. With increasing complexity work load of all the branches have increased tremendously.
    Legislative: have more and more laws to draft.
    Executive: have increased responsibility to provide better services.
    Judiciary: have more and more cases to solve emerged out of conflicts.
    Now no one can imagine better services in absence of laws, and these services cannot be efficient in absence of proper grievance redressal forum. So it is clear that these all branches can excel only together and not alone.
    Concept of Independent regulatory agencies emerged in United States where there is clear separation of power. But there was constant demand for such agencies. Finally independent regulatory agencies (IRA) which are executive and quasi-judicial in nature were formed by legislature. These IRAs are controlled by all the branches together. In India examples of IRAs are TRAI, IRDA, SEBI etc.
    All the three branches have delegated some of their authority to these agencies. They can make by-laws, issue notices to execute them and also act acts as court in adjudicating problems. These agencies are sometimes considers as fourth pillar of governance.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. Voluntary organizations have become tools of sensitization of governmental agencies. comment.
    Ans. In a developed democracy voluntary organization plays a major role in the stability of system. They act as a catalyst in the proper functioning of government as well as empowerment of people.
    They not only sensitize governmental agencies but also people. And beyond sensitization they help the system in many ways:-
    a. Developing democracy:- Voluntary organization enrich the society politically, socially and culturally and enhance the capacity of the society to function on democratic lines. In last lok sabha election number of voters reached its maximum is a good example on how these organizations spread awareness.
    b. Transparency and openness:- Work of organizations like mazdoor kishan shakti sangathan had played a major role in bringing RTI act. Many other organizations are continuously working in implementing it properly.
    c. Increases civic competence:- These organizations indirectly pressures people to follow social norms and have respect for law and order. In recent Swatchh Bharat mission these organization helped a lot.
    d. Policy formulation:- India against corruption and many other organization played major role in the draft of lokpal act.
    e. Policy implementation and evaluation:- Organizations like PRATHAM plays a major role in implementation and evaluation of education policies.
    f. Sensitization of government agencies:- Voluntary organization plays a major role in sensitizing government agencies and transform them from rule driven to mission driven bureaucracy. Eg. Centre for science and environment helped in bringing CNG buses in delhi, other movements like narmada bachao, chipko movement etc are examples in other fields.
    These voluntary organizations are not mere tools of sensitization but are playing a bigger role in democracy. Many times they are considered as fourth pillar of governance.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. Critically examine the Riggsian concept of differentiation in context of post-globalisation era.
    Ans. Riggs defined development as a process of increasing autonomy of social system made possible by rising level of diffraction. Diffraction consists of two processes differentiation and integration.
    According to Riggs differentiation means existence of a situation in which every function has a corresponding specialised structure for its performance. Eg economic sub-system, administrative sub-system, political sub-system etc.
    But in the era of globalization, nations boundaries are diminishing and world is slowly becoming a global village. With these changes the boundaries of different sub-systems are also diminishing in both developed and developing world.
    Big corporations provide different quality of products in different countries based on their economic and social system. Social system affects political system. Role of Indian diaspora in Britain politics or Jewish role in American politics is highly visible.
    In economic sub-system differentiation is done between developed and developing countries product in the name of child rights, labour rights, environmentalism etc. There are not working according to true market principles.
    So, in post globalization era Riggsian model needs an overlook to define development, diffraction and differentiation.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • Q. The term development Administration can be used only in a broad sense to mark the variety of approaches and point of view. Discuss
    Ans. The concept development administration developed after world war II. After world war II most of the colonial countries got independence and wanted to develop very fast. There desire to telescope time and distance and achieve fast socio-economic growth led to the development of many theories known as development administration.
    Thinkers like Riggs, Wiedner, Lucian Pye etc believe that there is deep relation between developmental and non-developmental works. And development administration can be divided into development of administration and administration of development.
    Few more views on development administration are:-
    Comparative politics group:- They believe that it is the process by which stability in political structure can be brought. If political structure is stable then development will itself follow.
    Comparative administrative group:- According to them DA is the process of comparative study of administrative system to bring rapid socio-economic development.
    Organisational view:- According to them DA is the application of traditional bureaucratic system to bring fast pace development.
    Ecological view;- Thinkers like Riggs and Heady believe that ecological conditions of different countries are different and to bring rapid development it is important to study them.
    So, there are many perspective of seeing development administration. Even many thinkers gave anti development thesis who were not satisfied with the above definitions. There is no unanimous definition of DA. Broadly it is used of all the theories whose target is to provide rapid socio-economic development to developing countries.
    The more you sweat in peace, the less you bleed in war.
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  • In the era of globalized public administration, hierarchy has created more ethical problem than it solves. Comment .
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  • "Laws are encted without involving police in the conception stage , with the result implementation of law leaves much to be desired " . Examine role of police in protection of children?? 2013 , 20 marks

    @firststep @doodlebean mam please review .
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